26-TERROR

KNOW HOW WE GOT HERE, AND KNOW INNER PEACE

In the latter part of 1792, the Illuminati set up a shadow government, the Paris Commune, in the Paris City Hall. Sitting as Montagnards in the Legislative Assembly, their representatives voted to abolish the Assembly and replaced it with the Convention. The September Massacres followed. For a whole week, teams of workers went about butchering a lot of innocent people. They would leave Paris City Hall in the morning wearing leather aprons and carrying hatchets, and go and butcher inmates and patients in prisons and hospitals. They would return at night with bloodied axes and sullied aprons to collect their day’s pay. It transfixed the French and all of Europe with fear. And even worse, as the September Massacres were being carried out, the guillotine started beheading people by the thousands. The Illuminati were not only bringing down the political structures of the Ancien Regime, they were also venting their deep festering hatred for their perennial enemy.

The Roman Catholic Empire was rather helpless during this cataclysm, but when the royal family was guillotined, the Roman Catholic Empire put all its might behind the Federalists in order to protect the catholic populations that were resisting in the Vendean region to the west and in the other major cities. In retaliation, the revolutionary government gave orders to apply scorched earth tactics to the Vendean region, and a genocide of great magnitude was carried out.

In order to save Toulon, the Federalists had taken it with the help of the French navy whose many Royalist commanders espoused their cause. However, once in command of the port, faced with a superior advancing Convention army who had just defeated their counterparts in Nimes, Avignon and Marseille to the west, the Federalists decided to surrender their city to the English whose navy had been blockading the port. It was a good tactic, for with thousands of English soldiers occupying the port, the Convention forces were kept at bay.

Mayer was appalled by the Vendean genocide where thousands of Catholic men, women and children were being exterminated, but when he got word of what was happening in Toulon, he became fully aware of the magnitude of the Terror. The year before, one Paul Barras, an aristocrat, had been elected to the Convention Assembly as a Montagnard representing the Var region. He was an unscrupulous, penniless and debauched individual from a well-to-do and respected family. He was initiated as a Freemason and joined the Jacobin Club like all Illuminati recruits of note. Since he represented the Var and had a military background, he was sent as emissary to the Italian Army Command which had been sent to liberate Toulon. When he got there, the Convention troops were in disarray, and nothing was being done. That’s when a young artillery lieutenant called Bonaparte suggested to the generals that it would be best to shell the port before any attempt to launch a frontal attack. The generals paid no attention to him, but Barras did. Since Barras had the authority, he told the generals to give the young man permission to get his canons. In quick order, Bonaparte proceeded to gather all the artillery he could from Marseille and other surrounding cities as well as the Italian Army Command to which he belonged. From the heights of Toulon, Bonaparte had a great advantage over the English forces, and after relentless shelling, the English were forced to flee taking some Federalists with them. But when told what happened to the Federalists who were left behind, Mayer was aghast. Barras and Freron had ordered their troops to take the city and butcher the Federalists at will. Notably, a wounded Bonaparte, not having participated in the massacre, was made General, and he owed it all to Barras.

In the meantime, Ouvrard had reported to Mayer that he had started selling off the unwanted secondary assets of the great estates he had purchased. The sale of the detached lands and buildings, as well as the furnishings and livestock, had pacified the local notables and farmers who didn’t have enough money to bid at auction and felt the revolution had cheated them. By encouraging them to pool what metal money they had, Ouvrard had made it possible for them to buy a lot of good property and chattels at an affordable price. Ouvrard told Mayer that he sometimes hesitated selling off the chattels because he didn’t know what prices to set. So far, he was using the original Convention evaluations set in pounds, but he wanted Mayer to confirm what exchange rates to use. Although there was hardly any metal money in circulation, fortunes in silver and gold had been hidden away.

Mayer had obviously thought it all out. The French livre would remain fixed to the English pound. 4 livres worth 1 oz of gold or 16 ozs of silver. With regards to the property values, the Convention evaluations would do just fine. Mayer told Ouvrard he was primarily interested in receiving gold as payment because of the sixteen to one weight advantage. He didn’t tell him the real reason.

The agents in France were extremely motivated, for they were becoming rich beyond their wildest dreams, commissions on billions of pounds being paid out in silver. But now Mayer wanted to thank them in a special way. He told Ouvrard that when the remaining Émigré real estate was bought up, he and the agents would be free to use their commissions to bid on any property they wanted. But when the auctions stopped, he was to tell François to stop printing assignats. Mayer would acquaint François with that decision from his end.

With thousands of tons of gold accumulating in the Goldsmid vaults, Mayer would soon need to have one of his sons take charge of family affairs in the City. Nathan, the pugnacious one, would be sent to the City in London when he reached 21, in five years’ time.

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10-INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

KNOW HOW WE GOT HERE, AND KNOW INNER PEACE

The Anglican religion, England’s state religion, can hardly be called protestant like the Lutheran or Calvinist religions, it’s a pseudo Catholic religion. When King Henry VIII personally replaced the Pope as head of the Church of England, he and the country remained very much Catholic. In time, that church was strongly influenced by the Puritans who had followed John Wycliffe’s teachings and had wanted to change the liturgy, but it remained true to its Roman Catholic roots. The strong anti-royalist or anti-papist feelings in England in the 17th century were a sign of the growing opposition to Church abuse, of course, but the Catholic Church’s demise was mainly due to the work of the Jews and the Huguenots who had created the English East India Company in 1600 and the Dutch East India Company in 1602. As the company dominated world trade and its owners became very powerful, they were more determined than ever to destroy their mortal enemy, the Roman Catholic Empire, or the Ancien Regimes of Europe.

When Charles I was decapitated in 1649, it marked the beginning of the end for the Absolute Kings of Divine Right and the Ancien Regime. At that time, the East India Company effectively controlled the economy of the Netherlands, but it had always wanted to move its headquarters from Amsterdam to the City in London. However, because Cromwell had disappointed his sponsors by failing to establish a proper parliamentary system in England, they had had to postpone democracy for another 40 years until the circumstances were favorable for William and Mary to wear the crown.

In 1694, once established in the City at the helm of the Bank of England, investment in research and development (R&D) could start in earnest. Sure to have their loans repaid in a timely and just fashion, they invested with abandon and launched what is called the Industrial Revolution. Thanks to ready credit, the English economy became dynamic, and European know-how flowed into the country. The bankers then started financing infrastructure projects in order to facilitate tax collection, internal trade, commerce and exchange of ideas. However, developing road and canal transport didn’t happen overnight, and the Industrial Revolution had to wait for the steam engine to really get started.

Denis Papin, a Huguenot from Hesse, had developed the cylinder and piston concept as early as 1695, but the use of steam was not fully exploited until James Watt invented the condenser in 1765. The Industrial Revolution coincided with the creation of the Bank of North America and Elie Whitney’s mindboggling invention, the cotton gin with interchangeable parts, in 1781. The main industry of the times, cotton, had experienced a great leap forward with the invention of the flying shuttle in 1733, the spinning Jenny in 1764, and the spinning frame in 1769, but it was the use of steam power and the invention of the cotton gin that revolutionized the greatest industry of the times.

On the iron side of things, railroads started being built in early 19th century, but the rails were made with wrought iron and were not durable. Sir Henry Bessemer, another Huguenot, changed all that when he invented a steel making process in 1856. In his blast furnaces, air oxidized and raised the temperature of the molten pig iron, while a small quantity of molten pig iron containing manganese was added and converted the whole large mass of molten iron into steel in just minutes, without the need for any additional fuel. That’s when track started being laid non-stop across Europe and America. In 1876, limestone was added to draw out phosphorous and make the steel less brittle, turning it into the wondrous material we know today.

Samuel Morse invented the telegraph in 1844, Elias Howe, the sewing machine, in 1846, Graham Bell, the telephone, in 1876, Thomas Edison, the light bulb in 1879, Galileo Ferraris & Nikola Tesla, the A/C motor in 1888, and Charles Steinmetz, the AC transformer in 1893. When George Westinghouse bought Tesla’s invention and started distributing AC electrical current over long distances, the whole world lit up.

The Bank of England created in 1694 was the catalyst for the Industrial Revolution. But more was to come. Because the Bank of England was made up of dozens of private bankers, it didn’t speak with one voice, and though the bankers had become very powerful, they had also become very English, and very parochial. It wasn’t until the first genuine international banker created the Bank of North America in 1781, and officially took over the English monetary system in 1810, did the world have a financial institution that spoke with one voice. Today, two hundred years after that takeover, we are the ones who enjoy the benefits of the great market economies made possible by that man and his dynasty.

8-VERSAILLES

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France had so many indirect taxes, and they were so complex, that the king, who was forever broke, was quite happy to farm out the tax-collecting chores to accelerate cash flow. The Farmers General, as they were called, would buy a six-year lease for a price corresponding to the total amount of taxes they deemed they could collect in that period of time. Obviously, the estimates were always on the low side, but the king, forever short of money and anxious to get at these huge upfront sums of money, wasn’t inclined to negotiate to any great extent. As one would expect, and since the Farmers General kept all the taxes collected, they tended to be very aggressive towards the citizens and took advantage of them while acting in the name of the king. Their collection methods were more often than not downright reprehensible.

The Farmers General became fabulously rich, pocketing as much as half of the total taxes paid out by the citizens. They would even routinely use their position as representatives of the king to defraud the locals. Coercion and blackmail were ongoing methods to get the producers to sell them their goods at ridiculously low prices and to have the helpless city merchants at the other end pay exorbitant prices for that same merchandise. They were the most hated men of the realm and much of the bitterness was directed at the king, for they acted in his name. When a finance minister was to be named, they directly influenced the king in his choice, thus getting the most accommodating candidate. The Dutch East India Company owners seized a great opportunity when Nicolas Fouquet was named Superintendent of Finances.

Louis XIV was a born megalomaniac, and in 1661, he was humiliated by Nicolas Fouquet, suspected of having doubtful dealings with the Farmers General. Fouquet had invited the king to his magnificent château de Vaux-le-Vicomte that he had just built, and the king upon seeing the magnificence and the beauty of the domain, not only envied his achievement but wondered where all the money to build it had come from. Smelling a rat, he confiscated Fouquet’s assets and threw him in prison.

The financiers in Amsterdam and London seized the opportunity and relieved the King’s rancour by making unlimited credit available to him through third parties so that he could build the most sumptuous kingly residence in the world, the chateau de Versailles. Louis XIV immediately hired the great artisans that had created the château de Vaux-le-Vicomte, architect Louis Le Vau, painter Charles Le Brun, and garden designer André le Nôtre, and construction began.

Profit wasn’t what motivated the owners of the East India Company in wanting the chateau de Versailles built, it was more a deep desire to witness the demise of the most important monarchy in the Christian Roman Empire. By separating the seat of power from the people, Versailles was twenty kilometers from Paris, the king would become vulnerable and could more easily be brought down when the time came. The occult financing of the chateau de Versailles by the financiers in Amsterdam was the seed that would develop into the French Revolution more than a hundred years later in 1789.

In 1789, bread was by far the most important ingredient in a Frenchman’s diet, especially if he was poor. It was central to people’s lives, and because the corrupt Farmers General controlled the supply of cereal and created timely famines, bread was often difficult to get, or very costly to buy. It was the bakers, however, who were widely perceived as profiting from dearth and famine, and making huge profits by selling this vital commodity at a high price. Bakers who were suspected of hoarding stocks or other malpractices were frequently assaulted. Being lynched became the occupational hazard of the baker.

When the French Revolution officially started in 1789, one of the first organized incidents was a march on Versailles. In October of that year, a very odd crowd of transvestites went to Versailles to fetch the royal family, “the baker, the baker’s wife, and the baker’s apprentice”. The escort provided by Lafayette and his men acted very oddly in that it made no attempt to stop the ‘ladies’. How such an ungainly group of women could go to Versailles, capture and bring back the royals to Paris with Lafayette’s National Guard helplessly standing by is a mystery. The tennis court oath under the leadership of Mirabeau in June, the taking of the Bastille under the sponsorship of Louis-Phillippe d’Orléans in July, and the March on Versailles under the guard of Lafayette in October, were separate and well-planned incidents, not spontaneous street actions.

7-EAST INDIA COMPANY

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In the Netherlands, William the Silent, also known as William of Nassau and Prince of Orange, was a robust champion of Protestantism who encouraged thousands of Jews, new Christians, as he called them, and Huguenots, Christian Protestants from France, to migrate to Amsterdam. Thanks to this influx, Amsterdam became the trading capital of the world and the Dutch ruled the waves for much of the 17th century.

Sephardim were money men while Huguenots were entrepreneurs, and together, they formed a formidable team. They created the East India Company in 1600, in London, but in 1602 they decided to establish their headquarters in Amsterdam where operations were unhindered by the Absolute Kings of Divine Right who were still sitting on the throne of England. That’s how the Dutch East India Company came to be.

In order to protect the North American fur trade, the Company owners had built a fort at the tip of Manhattan in 1609 which would become New Amsterdam in 1624, and later, New York. In 1652, they expanded and created a colony on the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa, in order to protect the spice trade with Asia. The Dutch East India Company ruled the oceans, and its founders, Jews and Huguenots, became so rich and powerful, that very early on, they started thinking about the demise of the Holy Roman Empire, and moving their headquarters to London.

The owners of the greatest company on earth had always wanted to establish their headquarters in London, for England was a bigger and more convenient base to work from, but they had faced several problems. When Henry VIII had replaced the Pope as head of the Church of England a century before, England had remained very much Catholic, but Henry had lost the financial services of the Holy Roman Empire. Henry had then scrambled to fill the financial void, and in a futile move, he had sold off all the unprofitable Church real estate which had generated very little revenue. In spite of the widespread antisemitism still rampant in the country, being desperate, he had turned to the Jews for banking help. The Huguenots had been welcomed with open arms for their considerable know-how, while Jews were being treated like ‘Christ killers’ and abused, and they were only tolerated because of their money-lending talents. That’s why the Jews and Huguenots had found it more convenient to set up the headquarters of the East India Company in Amsterdam.

But the goal was to establish the Company’s headquarters in London. However, before they could, they would have to find a way to get rid of the Absolute Kings of Divine Right, and get a king that would accept parliamentary rule. As it so happened, there were strong anti-royalist feelings in the existing English parliament, and the word Catholic was starting to be used to distinguish the papist followers from the Protestants, whether Anglican, Lutheran, or Calvinist. So, because Charles I, a Catholic, had just been crowned after marrying the catholic Bourbon Princess Henrietta, it wouldn’t be too difficult to finance an army that would answer to an anti-royalist parliament, defeat the catholic king, and force him to accept parliamentary rule. The country was ripe for civil war.

Oliver Cromwell came to the financiers’ attention in 1642, when he joined the roundheads, the pro-parliamentarians. At the outset of what became known as the English civil war, he distinguished himself militarily and was subsequently promoted to commander of the New Model Army. Over the next few years, the royalist forces were defeated, and when Charles 1, the divine right king, was captured following a battle in Scotland in 1645, he was handed over to the English parliament which was under the protection of Oliver Cromwell’s New Model Army. However, Charles refused to accept a constitutional monarchy and escaped. In 1647, he was recaptured, and in 1648, he was tried, convicted and executed. Cromwell then dominated the Rump Parliament that was created in 1649.

But Oliver Cromwell was a puritan fanatic who was extremely aggressive towards Ireland and Scotland, both catholic strongholds. Not able or not wanting to work with the Irish and Scottish parliamentarians, he simply dissolved parliament. After taking on the title of Lord Protector of England, Wales, Ireland and Scotland, he turned the powerful English navy against the very financiers that had financed it, the owners of the Dutch East India Company. He wanted England to take charge of the Atlantic trade. Of course, that was not to be, and Cromwell was doomed.

When Cromwell died from natural causes in 1658, his inept son couldn’t hold the Protectorate together, and several parliaments succeeded each other until the Convention Parliament decided to recall the Catholic kings. During the Restoration period (1660-1688), two kings of divine right, the two sons of Charles I, James II and Charles II, ruled and fought the Dutch East India Company for trade supremacy.

The Jews and Huguenots both in Amsterdam and in London had to find a way to put a stop to the fratricidal naval wars and especially to the rule of Absolute Kings of Divine Right in England. An arranged marriage between William of the House of Orange and Mary of the House of Stuart would be a very good way to do just that. In the interim, the financiers turned their attention to France.