8-MARRANOS

 

When the prelates decided to revamp the image of the revered messiah Apollonius by changing his name and turning him into the son of God, the founding fathers had a problem. The Apollonius lookalike had to be an Essene from Palestine, and that meant he had to be a Jew. How does one build a Roman religion based on the teachings of a Jew? Well, they did it by likening the money-lending Jews of the Temple of Jerusalem to Jews in general. By conjuring up a story where the invented messiah was violently opposed to the Jewish usurers, and where these same usurers were responsible for his horrible death on the cross, it would be one way to turn him into a very acceptable Jew. Furthermore, the faithful would readily accept the idea that Apollonius, their long-departed Greek messiah, had, some 300 years prior, accomplished miracles and was indeed the Son of God as touted by the prelates of the Church of Rome. Whether the results were desired or not, Jews would henceforth bear the Christ-killer stigma. Christians, believing that Jews were responsible for the death of their Christ, wouldn’t be unduly upset to see them tortured, burned at the stake, or despoiled and banned from their homes.

Geographically, France is the hub of Europe, and it naturally became the cornerstone of Christianity when the Church of Rome took over the administration of Gaul and the Western Roman Empire after Constantin’s departure for Byzantium. Clovis, a Frank, was the Church’s first anointed king of divine right, and during his reign, he did his best to persecute and convert the ‘barbarians’ who were by then called Arians.

Once the converting tactics were well under way, the Church of Rome turned its attention to the Jews. In 629 CE, the Pope directed King Dagobert to expulse the Jews from Christian Gaul. Later, in 996 CE, when King Robert the Pious came to power in France, he burned a great number of Jews at the stake. When in 1009 the Muslims burned the alleged Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem, the Christians blamed the Jews, and consequently, many French Jews were again tortured and massacred. Later, in 1096, Jews started being systematically despoiled, and burned at the stake or expulsed from the realm. It was the start of the first crusade, and Philip 1st and his noblemen had taken advantage of the situation in order to replenish their coffers. By despoiling the Jews and expulsing them, they were killing two birds with one stone. Philip was not only doing his Christian duty but he had found a way to finance the crusade ordered by Pope Urban II. Over the next centuries, when King Philippe Augustus and others needed money they would let the Jews back in for a fee, and the whole process would start over again. However, in 1394, Charles VI officially declared the definite expulsion of Jews from France, and as many as 100 000 French Jews made their way to Spain.

They chose Spain not only because it was close to France, but it was also because the Muslims were by then in full control of Spain and were more tolerant towards other religious groups. But when the Christians reconquered the Iberian Peninsula in 1478, the Pope ordered an Inquisition as soon as it became feasible. The Jews were again forced to convert to Christianity, and if they refused, they were burned at the stake. Understandably, many Sephardim chose to convert while continuing to practise their religion in secret, and they became known as Marranos. In 1492, they were expelled from Spain and many of them fled to Portugal and Morocco.

In 1536, there was another Inquisition directed at Jews in Portugal. Once more, facing torture and death, many Jews fled. This time, because a world shattering event had just taken place in England, many of the great banking and shipbuilding Jewish families chose to go there. It had to do with Henry VIII after the Pope had refused to annul his marriage. The Pope, who was in the habit of arranging and annulling royal marriages for political and religious reasons, had refused to grant Henry VIII his divorce, and here’s why. King Henry had married a Spaniard, Catherine of Aragon, and since the Church of Rome considered the Kingdom of Spain much more important than the Kingdom of England, it was therefore unwilling to displease the King of Spain. When the Pope refused to grant Henry VIII his request, the latter was so determined to have a son that his present wife could not give him that he declared himself head of the Church in England, separated from Rome, and divorced Catherine.

In the process, England was deprived of the financial services of Rome. At first, Henry sold off all the unprofitable Church property and even had his friends rummage through the unsold properties for possible treasures and valuable materials, but it was a futile move. Most of the revenue derived from these operations ended up in the hands of those doing the demolishing and the selling, and very little revenue reached the state coffers. Not surprisingly, many old aristocratic families are to this day indebted and loyal to the King of England.

With no other option, Henry decided to admit the Jews back into England. The Jews had been expelled from England since 1290, but these were special Jews. The Marranos or Conversos, as they were called, professed to be Christians when in fact they still practised their religion in secret. But Henry overlooked their deceitfulness, for he was in dire financial straits and needed their financial skills. In accepting Jews for their financial skills and Huguenots for their great entrepreneurship, Henry caused a breach in the foundation of the Holy Roman Empire as a financial and political power.

6-THE RISE OF FRANCE

Shortly before the convening of the Council of Nicaea in 325 CE, Emperor Constantine gave the Lateran Palace estate, the land where the Vatican stands today, to the bishop of Rome. For the western world, this was to be the center of power, religious, political and financial, right up to the City bankers’ takeover in 1688.

Shortly after the Council of Nicaea, the Christian bishops, supported by the Roman emperor, started Christianising the Arian ‘barbarians’ who occupied most of the empire. But the new Trinitarian religion that stated that the bishop of Rome was the representative of God on earth and that his authority had precedence over that of the ‘barbarian’ kings, was vigorously opposed by the latter. The Arian barbarians were followers of Apollonius, a holy man and prophet, and they found the concept of the Holy Trinity, where the son of God had come down on earth in person, totally absurd. They were more in tune with the doctrine that stated that Mother Earth was the ultimate source of power. They were prepared to accept the Roman administration, and even to live in harmony with the Roman civil servants, but they could not accept the archaic Roman religion nor the new Trinitarian religion.

That is why the bishop of Rome and the emperor had to resort to force. When, in 486, at the age of twenty, a certain Clovis, king of the Salian Franks, won the battle of Soissons against Syagrius, the bishops realized that they had found their strong man. In order to convert Clovis to Christianity, they arranged to have him meet Clotilde, a Christian Burgundian. He married her in 493, and once the kingdom of the Salian Franks was allied to the kingdom of the Burgundians and to that of Soissons, Clovis was able to go after the Alamans to the east and the Visigoths to the south.

During the Battle of Tolbiac against the Alamans in 496, the Frankish warriors, Salians and Ripuarians, were far outnumbered by their opponent. Clovis, seeing victory escape him, decided to invoke the God of his wife Clotilde, asking him to intervene. When the Alamans fled, their chief having been killed by a flying ax, the Franks claimed victory, and Clovis converted to Christianity.

On December 25, 498, Clovis was baptized and anointed king by Saint Rémi in Reims. From that moment onwards, the conquered Arians were not unhappy to have Christian Franks as masters, and Clovis adroitly exploited his status as the first king of divine right.

Later in 507, Clovis’ campaign against the Visigoths took on the appearance of a crusade, and the decisive battle took place in the plain of Vouillé, near Poitiers, a battle from which Clovis emerged victorious. Alaric II, king of the Visigoths, perished in the fray, and Clovis not only seized a big slice of the Visigoth kingdom but also managed to get his hands on Alaric’s treasure which was in Toulouse.

When Clovis died in 511, the vanquished Arians had by then accepted the Trinitarian religion, and the Frankish kingdom had become a Christian kingdom. France was an important part of the Holy Roman Empire, for it was not only its geographical centerpiece but it played a major role politically and militarily.

Clovis’ military successes against the Alamans and Visigoths, as well as those of his sons against the Burgundians, were such that Arianism disappeared almost completely from what is today Europe, the only exception being the Lombards in Italy. After Charlemagne defeated the Lombards in 770, Arianism was totally eradicated from the empire. When Charlemagne was crowned King of the Franks in 768, and especially when he was anointed Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in Rome, in 800, it meant the rule by kings of divine right was entrenched with France leading the way. It remained so for the next thousand years.

5-COUNCIL OF NICAEA

Around 20 thousand years ago, hominids learned to grow things and became sedentary. 5 thousand years ago, writing started, and those who mastered the art were considered superior beings, and wanting to improve the human condition, they started putting religion to paper. Some 1700 years ago, as the Roman Empire was on the verge of collapsing, a few wise men decided to invent and create the most successful religion the world has ever seen. The New Testament, the document that served as a basis for this religion, created a ‘God made Man’ figure that was based on the life of Apollonius of Tyana.

Apollonius was born at the start of the Common Era (CE) and lived to be around 100. Very early on in life he opted for continence and abstinence, as opposed to pleasure and gratification, as a way of achieving enlightenment and freeing his spirit. He followed the teachings of Pythagoras, great philosopher, mathematician, ascetic and vegetarian, born in 569 BCE. Later Apollonius travelled and studied far and wide, including India, in order to further his knowledge. He was an avowed philosopher, social leader, moral teacher, religious reformer and healer, and from one end of the Roman empire to the other, he was honored by all, from slave to emperor. Many referred to him as ‘the master’ or the ‘savior’, for he healed the body as well as the soul.

After travelling to India where he was greatly influenced by Krishna, he became a naturopathic healer. He healed by ‘the laying of hands’, and by the use of hydrotherapy. The idea of baptism likely originated when he decided to clean the bodies of the poor wretches who came to consult him. He would rinse out their colon in order to rid them of worms, clean their whole bodies, insist on their getting a lot of clean air and sunlight, and above all, strongly urge them not to consume anything that Mother Earth did not directly produce. He was a strict vegetarian who did not drink wine and respected the life of animals as much as that of humans.

In India he was introduced to the doctrines of Krishna, and the doctrines of Pythagoras and Krishna became one in his mind. In Judea and Egypt, he preached to the Nazarenes and the Therapeuts, and converted many. The Nazarenes and Therapeuts were also known as Essenes, individuals who belonged to a Jewish sect that had split off from the main body of Judaism. The Nazarenes lived near the Dead Sea and are the presumed authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls, while the Therapeuts lived near Alexandria where they were known as healers. Upon his return from India, Apollonius, already a famous teacher of moral, became known as a great healer, and he was no doubt the one responsible for spreading the Essene doctrine throughout the Roman Empire. Though not Jewish, he became known as an Essene, and converted many ‘new’ Jews, Romans and others, to his way of thinking. The Essenes were soon seen as a threat to the foundering Roman religion.

In 325CE, faced with an Empire on life support, Emperor Constantine had an idea. Constantine had been made Augustus of the Western Roman Empire in 313 CE. A previous Emperor, Diocletian, had split the Empire into three parts in order to better rule, but it hadn’t helped, for thereafter the Empire had been torn apart by civil war more than ever. Constantine lost no time in defeating and killing Emperors Maxentius and Licinius, in order to become sole ruler. Wanting to establish peace within the Empire before leaving for Byzantium to the east, Constantine proceeded to replace an ineffective impersonal Roman religion with the very popular and widespread Essene religion based on the teachings of Apollonius. Instead of massacring the Essenes like Diocletian had done, he decided to use them. He would rule through a religious network instead of a military one. He would make the Essene religion the official state religion, and have bishops infiltrate the existing Roman Empire infrastructure. In 325 CE, he convened the Council of Nicaea.

Constantine may be revered as a saint by the Greek Christian Church, and somewhat so by the Latin Christian Church which doesn’t quite know what to think of him, but regardless, he was a sanguinary. The Roman Church claims he was baptized on his deathbed, but that is questionable and irrelevant. Constantine was a brutal man who butchered his enemies and executed his own wife and son. It’s clear that whatever this cruel man did was seeped in raw ambition.

As he convened the Council of Nicaea, Constantine must have insisted on having a few changes made to the about-to-be-created state religion. Apollonius, an Essene who had existed more than three hundred years before, was the acknowledged messiah, a holy man who had not only preached peace and goodwill among men, but also abstinence and respect for all living things. Understandably, a religion that condemned meat eating, wine drinking, lasciviousness and profit making, was out of the question. If it was to be declared the official state religion, it needed a few nips and tucks; it needed to be more in tune with Roman reality.

As it turned out, the revamped messiah not only drank wine and ate fish but was declared Son of God. The prelates kept inventing Christ by saying that he had been conceived by a virgin who had been visited by a holy spirit. All the scriptures that have come down to us were either created or adjusted at that time in order to give credence to the God-made-man concept. Contrary to Apollonius, the real messiah figure, the alleged messiah accomplished a lot of miracles, miracles that were never corroborated by any historian. No matter, presenting the new Christ as the Son of God was something the superstitious hominids would readily believe. It wasn’t much of a stretch for them to believe their Messiah was actually the Son of God who had been sent down on earth and made man in order to save them.

In pursuing their goal, the Church fathers were quite wise in keeping some existing myths. One such myth was a convoluted story where Adam and Eve, the first human couple, had been caught playing house in the Garden of Eden. The deed was so horrendous that God reacted violently and banned the couple and their descendants from the Garden of Eden for all time. Very odd behavior for a master creator who wanted to create a human race! Nonetheless, the Christian gurus’ stroke of genius was to have everybody believe that God changed his mind and sent his son down on earth to die on the cross in order to redeem humans from their ‘original sin’, a curse that was sending hominids straight to hell. From then on, if one wanted God to accept him into the Garden of Eden after death, all he had to do was to have that dreadful first sin washed away from his soul through baptism and to live according to the teachings of the revamped Christ. This transformed the lowly hominids into godlike creatures, and more importantly, they now knew where they came from, why they were here, and where they were going after death. They were relieved from the ‘original sin’, ‘existential sin’, or ‘sin of the flesh’, depending on one’s interpretation.

As for setting Christ’s birthday, it was rather easy. Because he was now considered the giver of eternal life, it was quite logical to have his birth coincide with the greatest event in the sun’s cycle. What happens on the 25th of December is a phenomenon that’s unique and unchanging in the northern hemisphere; the sun stops dropping off the horizon and can be observed reversing itself. Since the increased amount of sunlight is tantamount to a promise of new life, many ancient gods are said to have been born on this day. And since the Romans were used to celebrating Sol Invictus, why not continue the tradition and celebrate Christ’s birth instead?

Christ’s birth year was another matter. The prelates wanted to make it coincide as much as possible with the birth of Apollonius in order to make the imposture credible. So, in Roman Era 1279 (525 CE), a monk called Dionysius Exiguus introduced the Anno Domini calendar. Since the Easter calendar used during the Roman Era was a calendar referring to emperor years, Dionysius said it was intolerable to continually refer to Diocletian, the Emperor who had persecuted and massacred the Essenes, and he set about creating the Gregorian calendar. So, with imaginative arithmetic, he arrived at the conclusion that the Messiah was born in 753 of the Roman Era, and decided that January 1st of year 754 of the Roman Era would be known as January 1st of Year One of the Anno Domini Era (AD). It was much later, in 1582 CE that Pope Gregory, in spite of the dubious arithmetic used by Dionysius, made it official. Ever since, when dating historical events, the whole world uses BC or AD, acronyms that are tied to the birth of Jesus of Nazareth, a fabricated messiah. That’s why some people today prefer to use the acronym CE (Common Era).

As for Christ’s birth place, it was established when Emperor Constantine made a stop in Palestine with his mother Helena on his way to Byzantine. The idea was to break all possible ties between the new Christ and Apollonius, the Essenes and the Jewish religion. Helena determined that Christ had been born in Bethlehem, a harmless out of the way place, and that’s where she had a church built. In the meantime, Constantine had workers excavate the area where the demolished temple of Jupiter Capitolinus had been in Jerusalem. When the workers allegedly discovered the remains of the tomb that was reported to be that of Christ, Constantine had a new shrine built on the spot, and it still stands today as the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. The temple of Venus had also been demolished, thereby exposing the site where Christ was allegedly crucified. Emperor Constantine had arrived at this conclusion after ordering the Bishop of Jerusalem to make a search for the cross which produced a few pieces of wood found in a cistern. Constantine and his mother may have had the holy places built for their own reasons, but Jews and Muslims have never quite agreed with the accuracy of their geographical positioning.

The Council of Nicaea was indeed a momentous event in our history. Because the Christian Church was now the official Roman religion, it grew exponentially, and went about converting the Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Burgundians, and Vandals, the Arian ‘barbarians’, with the help of Clovis, the Frankish warlord. After being baptized in Reims in 496 CE, Clovis had become the first of many absolute kings of divine right, and he had started doing his godly chores by changing the minds of those who believed Christ was a prophet and not the Son of God. In enforcing the Nicene Creed untold numbers of Essenes, or barbarians as we are taught, were accordingly slaughtered.

Having gotten rid of all opposition, the growth of the new religion knew no bounds, and the church made good use of the Roman Empire infrastructure, especially in the Latin half. Having a church and a holy man in every small town fostered a feeling of solidarity and the poor hominids felt secure for the first time in all of their existence. To the east, in the Greek half, it was another matter. The Greek Church refused the authority of the Latin Pope and divided up in parts controlled by separate Patriarchs. And because it also had to face the pressures of the Muslim world, the Greek Church never attained the power and influence of the Latin Church.

The Christian Church very quickly became a considerable financial power. After Charlemagne was crowned Emperor by Pope Theo III in Reims, France, in 800 CE, tithing throughout Europe took on a new dimension. Because 10% of everybody’s revenue represented mindboggling amounts, and because many Christians bequeathed their estates to the Church in order to ensure their passage to heaven after their demise, the Church owned as much as one third of all the wealth and property in Europe.

But, no matter how we view it, the tremendous success of the Christian Church was due primarily to human psychology. When humans broke the time barrier, they were not only traumatized by the awareness of their mortality, but they were also ashamed of their bestiality, especially as regards fornication. Judaism had long ago tried to alleviate their fear and their shame by imagining the story of Adam and Eve where both were banished from the Garden of Eden for eating the forbidden fruit. However, the authors hadn’t followed up with a solution.

The genius of the fathers of the Roman religion was to tell the faithful that their messiah was the son of God who had been sent down to earth to free them from the sin committed by Adam and Eve and to show them the way to heaven. One needed only to be baptized and to follow the ten commandments. Their Christ had thus opened the door of heaven to all the poor wretches of the empire. Later, at the Council of Trent in 1545, when the Church Fathers made confession a sacrament, the success of Christianity was assured. The local priest was then perceived as being in direct contact with God, and being the representative of God on earth, he could heal the penitent’s soul by forgiving his sins in his name. The psychological effect produced by the confession was considerable.

4-GREED AND SEXUALITY

When hominids became intelligent, their natural disposition towards envy, greed, and lust took on a new dimension. Natural selection being thrashed, they started physically overpowering the females, for it didn’t take them long to figure out that the most accessible and mind-boggling pleasures were those relating to fornication. Up till then, the right to pass on genes had been reserved to the alpha who had to constantly fight the other males for that privilege. However, the alpha never paid much attention to the female unless she was in heat at which time he was made aware of her by the characteristic odor she exuded. This, however, was no longer the case, and it left the door wide open for the now intelligent lower order males.

In a blink of an eye, many lower order males became aspiring alphas, for they had the wherewithal to outwit the traditional alpha in their effort to get a female and experience the intense pleasures of copulation. Realizing that they didn’t have to wait for the entrancing odors given off by the female in heat in order to satisfy their urge, hominids became very focused on ‘diddling’, and it caused a lot of violence and cruelty within the group. Males were ready to move heaven and earth in order to experience the wondrous sensations fornication procured them. They fought, cheated, lied, and were even disposed to maim and kill in order to satisfy the urges that the female triggered in them.

Unfortunately for the females, using his intelligence instead of his nose in order to find a partner meant the male was inclined to discriminate. Up till then, all the females had had the services of the best male available, the alpha, but now, the lower ranking males found ways to party as well, and that changed the order of things. Not only did the males start forcing themselves upon the females, but they became selective. They figured out that if they wanted to increase their chances at having many healthy offspring, it was not only better to seek out a young female with generous hips, but if a female had big breasts, a well-proportioned body, and harmonious facial features, she was more apt to be nurturing, healthy, and resourceful.

In the millennia that followed, frantic sexual activity among lower-ranking partners made the breeding stock deteriorate, while the rate of sexually transmitted diseases increased, and fewer children survived. Fortunately, the law of natural selection intervened one last time by transforming the oestrous cycle of females into a menstrual cycle in order to favor reproduction. Over the millennia that followed, females became reproductive all year round and were receptive to males more often. More pregnancies resulted. A uterus with thicker walls better protected the embryos, and more fetuses came to term. At the end of each menstrual cycle, the flow of blood freed the female genitals of harmful bodies, increased vaginal secretions made the vagina a hostile place for bacteria, and the rate of sexually transmitted diseases dropped. However, this hostility also applied to the spermatozoa, and since only the strongest of the latter made it to the ovum in order to fertilize it, it tended to enhance the quality of the genetic pool. And since the female received several males, paternity was confused, and males wanting to have a reproductive female with whom to have his own offspring dared not kill the babies of that nursing female, for he didn’t know if the offspring were his own. Thus, our species survived in spite of the fact that we became intelligent.

But there was another problem. Because every Tom, Dick, and Harry were now fornicating with every Sue, Jane, and Mary and the quality of the breeding stock was dropping, there were fewer Adonis and Venus lookalikes and more individuals with inadequacies and shortcomings. And since hominids were now intelligent, they weren’t only conscious of where they stood on the social ladder, but they also knew if they’d been short-changed genetically. Feeling the need to compensate for their shortcomings, they took the easiest path. Lying, cheating, posturing, and bringing others down to their level as a way of making themselves feel adequate was the order of the day. They found it harder and harder to admit to being wrong or ignorant, and they were even prepared to commit cruel and dastardly deeds to prove they were as good as anybody else. Hominids became unnatural and fragile animals, and it engendered a lot of ugliness in them.

Though denaturalized, hominids were truly ingenious monkeys, and they knew that they couldn’t afford to alienate the group members. They were dependent on the group, and they knew it was in their best interest to have the others think highly of them. They were torn between their uncontrollable urge to satisfy their desires and their need to be liked. Regardless, they were becoming hard to handle, and physical force alone could no longer keep them in line and maintain cohesion within the group. Many individuals were aware of the advantages that altruism and cooperation procured, but there were too many who didn’t.

As it became obvious that hominids’ disposition with regards to greed and lust was making cohesion within the group impossible, the elders had to find ways to make everyday life bearable. Through stories and myths, they promoted the notion of omnipotent, omnipresent, omniscient beings who could inflict the worse punishments on those who didn’t behave as expected. At night, hominids were constantly reminded of these threats as they sat around the communal fire listening to the tall tales. They saw the evil red eyes piercing through the thick surrounding blanket of darkness, and as they listened to the howls of monsters that prowled the night, they trembled. The precursor of the bad mean god who could condemn one to the consuming fires of hell for eternity was being created.

3-TIME BARRIER

When scientists tell us that all life on Earth evolved from amino acids and the like, building blocks of life brewed in the primeval soup of life at the dawn of time, we sort of believe them, and when they tell us that Darwin’s theory of evolution is irrefutable, we sort of believe them, but when they tell us we’re monkeys, that’s when we get our backs up. If we’re intelligent, it’s because God made us that way, and that’s all there is to it.

Nonetheless, it gets harder and harder to refute the evidence that our ancestors had started prancing around on two feet as recently as 7 million years ago. As we became bipedal, and with the Sahara pump working away, we prospered in the African Rift Valleys where environmental conditions were ideal. We spent a lot of time in the water in order to protect ourselves from predators and lost most of our hair in the process. However, we found it impossible to compete with the big predators roaming the grasslands, and we certainly weren’t able to get at the carcasses until they had finished with them. To be sure, we were at the bottom of the totem pole when it came to living off the grasslands. Nonetheless, in time, we got our courage up and invested the killing fields in order to glean a few morsels from the leftovers, and we obviously found nothing but bones. Understandably, we didn’t know what to do with them, but since we were last on the scene and had all the time in the world to experiment, we eventually cracked one open. The precious bone marrow we found was avidly consumed, and when added to the rich and plentiful sea food already at our disposition in the shallow waters, we evolved in a spectacular way. By spending less time foraging for food, we had more time to ‘think’.

Since our brain was rapidly increasing in size along with the rest of our body, there was outward pressure on the cranium, and, in time, our facial features slowly morphed into what they are today. As the neocortex grew exponentially and grafted itself upon our reptilian and limbic brains, it caused an explosion of cerebral activity, and we became the thinking, talking, problem-solving emotional beings we are today.

As of that moment, we traveled in an existential world different from the other primates. But the line that forever set us apart from our wild cousins was drawn in the sand when we grasped the notion of death. After witnessing the death of a loved one, not grasping why our parent or companion was no longer communicating with us, or why his or her body was decomposing, we were probably overcome with deep emotional distress. Our feelings and our need to understand surely made something snap in our brain. That was the day we broke the time barrier, the day we realized that we too would die.

Breaking the time barrier meant we were now intelligent. We could use past experience to shape future events. As a simple ape frozen in the present, we had not known the anguish that the notion of death produces. Before, death had just been a momentary interruption in time, a sad happening devoid of meaning, and one that was not anticipated. But now, having broken the time barrier, not only did we know that we would die, but we also knew what could cause our death, and we were scared out of our wits. We saw dangers that threatened our life every which way we turned. We no longer trusted our instincts and our insecurity made us very aggressive. An everyday occurrence became a deadly threat, and fear overcame us. The forest became a scary place and darkness was unbearable. We could no longer stand the aquatic environment either, for we imagined the most terrible creatures lurking beneath the surface.

We managed to survive by taking refuge in caves and grabbing unto the (coat) tails of any outstanding individual who seemed to have answers. Through trial and error, we discovered how to make a fire and keep it going. Thereafter, we not only could warm ourselves, but we could keep the predators at bay. We learned to make weapons, and to hunt and live in groups, and our confidence grew. Nonetheless, it was hard to accept that we were animals and behaved like animals, and that our life would someday end.

2-HOMINIDS

As we twitter with the whole world and fly to the far reaches of the globe on a whim, and as we enjoy clean water and unlimited electricity by flicking a button or turning a knob, we are empowered and feel invincible. Many of the values of those who not so long ago built their own homes, raised large families, grew their own food and made their own clothes, seem to be absent from our lives.

If we better understood the human monkey and knew how the world of credit that empowered us was created, we would not only tend to reconnect with those values, but also realize how lucky we are to be living in the best of all possible worlds. More importantly, we would find serenity in that knowledge, and be more inclined to do things that fulfill us instead of those that eat away at our insides.

This blog is meant to shed light on the evolution of humans and explain how the wonderful world of credit was planned and created. The hope is that young people will read it and choose to live productive happy lives instead of overdosing on shit.

Around 65 million years ago, after the dinosaurs died off, we primates were the size of meerkats, and perhaps just as cute. In Africa, some 7 million years ago, the hominine-ape split occurred, bipedalism followed, and we started using tools. At the beginning of the Quaternary, around 2.5 million years ago, the ice age we’re presently in began, and as water levels dropped, we spread far and wide.

Glacials (maximum ice) and interglacials (minimum ice) occur in fairly regular cycles of around 20 thousand years. The timing is governed in large degree by predictable cyclic changes in Earth’s orbit, which affect the amount of sunlight reaching different parts of Earth’s surface. The three orbital variations are: changes in Earth’s orbit around the Sun (eccentricity), shifts in the tilt of Earth’s axis (obliquity), and the wobbling motion of Earth’s axis (precession).

Our evolution was subjected to these glacial and interglacial swings that some refer to as the Sahara Pump. When the Sahara was dry like it is today we migrated either south to the Sahel region, north to the Atlas Mountains, or east to the Nile and African Rift valleys, and when it was wet, some of us migrated back. Around 3 million years ago, our cortex started to grow exponentially, and it seems to have occurred while we were in the African Rift Valley. In order to escape the big predators, we spent a lot of time in the water. In time we shed our body hair, and because we had access to an overabundance of aquatic food, our brain size went from that of a chimpanzee to what it is today. We then developed language, created complex tools, controlled fire, built shelters, buried our dead, wore clothing, and built rafts to cross large bodies of water.

70 thousand years ago, the warming leg of the interglacial we’re now in was interrupted by the Toba volcanic eruption that caused a one-thousand-year winter during which most of life on earth died out. In the following 30 thousand years, as the warming trend resumed, the hominids who had prospered in Asia slowly migrated westward to Europe. The Neanderthals, who had migrated to Europe prior to the Toba eruption had been severely affected by it and were not doing very well. Their population had dwindled down to a few breeding couples. As the hominids from Asia arrived in Europe, they mingled with the Neanderthals that were left standing, but the new arrivals prospered in a spectacular way while the Neanderthals disappeared. 10 thousand years ago, as the warming cycle that we’re presently in gained full momentum, we started developing agriculture and leading sedentary lives.

1-SYNOPSIS

We became bipedal monkeys around 7 million years ago. 3 million years ago, while in the African Rift Valley, we became intelligent, and when ocean levels allowed it, we migrated to Eurasia. 5 thousand years ago, writing developed and religion started being used as a control tool by autocratic demagogues. Military rule then followed with the Roman empire era. 2 thousand years ago, religious rule replaced military rule as the Roman empire’s military infrastructure was handed over to a religious group inspired by the teachings of Apollonius. Thereafter, the papist rulers’ intolerant and cruel ways, in direct conflict with the moral standards of Apollonius, were such that Jews and Huguenots (French protestants) suffered unspeakable atrocities. As time went on, these two persecuted groups were ever more determined to destroy the political and financial institution known as the Church of Rome. In 1600, they joined forces in a protestant and independent Amsterdam, and created the East India Company. They ruled the oceans of the world out of Amsterdam while they waited for an opportunity to establish their permanent headquarters in England, a country that still had papist kings in spite of Henry VIII’s shenanigans back in 1535. The shareholders of the East India Company arranged a marriage between Mary and Billy in 1677, and in 1688 sent the couple to England to wear the crown of a protestant constitutional monarchy. When the Bank of England was created in 1694, true democracy was born. But what is democracy?

For thousands of years, when Jews lent money to princes and kings, instead of being repaid, they were often despoiled, exiled or massacred, and as for the French protestant entrepreneurs, for hundreds of years, they weren’t allowed to carry on business for profit, and were often persecuted and even massacred by the country’s anointed king if they didn’t follow the dictates of the Church of Rome. With the creation of the Bank of England, the East India Company shareholders were now owners of the only institution allowed to lend money to the English Parliament. When parliamentarians wanted to get re-elected or launch projects, they had to go to the Bank of England for financing, for it was the only institution in the country allowed to print or coin money. If successful, the parliamentarians then collected the taxes in order to pay back the loans. For the first time in history, bankers were sure of being repaid in a just and timely manner. However, though people were free to vote for their representative and though that representative was free to try to get his projects underway, it was the bankers of the Bank of England who had the last word in who got elected and what was to be financed. That arrangement between a free voting people and private bankers would serve as a template for all democracies to come.

But all was not perfect, for the B of E was made up of dozens of bankers who were not entirely objective and devoid of greed and one-upmanship. They were mainly concerned with their own self-interest as English merchants. Fortunately, that’s when the greatest man who ever lived came along and started a bank in America. Mayer’s goal was to eventually establish a paper currency that could be used by all trading partners, and he accomplished this in total anonymity. The idea was to accumulate all the gold available in one place and use it to back up a currency that would become a world reserve currency for all future central banks. The gold would remain in one big pile for eternity. In time, the US paper dollar backed by this mountain of gold would displace the UK pound as a world currency and become as good as gold.

The first big chunk of gold bullion came from France when, in 1776, thanks to Benjamin Franklin’s genius as a diplomat, the French king sent around 500 tons of gold to help the American cause. It was enough gold to allow Robert Morris to create Mayer’s first bank in Philadelphia. In 1789, thanks to the most prodigious and humane real estate coup ever perpetrated, Mayer accumulated another 5000 tons of French gold, and stored it in the City. Since there was only around 15000 tons of gold bullion in the whole wide world at the time, this was enough gold to make his banker son in the City more powerful than all the other B of E bankers combined. In 1810, Mayer’s son, Nathan, controlled the monetary systems of the USA, the UK, and of all the countries that traded in those currencies. However, if more central banks or democracies were to be created, he needed to accumulate more gold. In 1812, Nathan sent Napoleon to Moscow in order to force the tsar to open his country to gold mining by private companies. In a very short period of time, thousands of tons of alluvial gold made its way to the City. Napoleon and the Tsar were paid handsomely in paper pounds while Nathan got the gold.

In 1863, a national banking system was established in the USA with the US dollar as its official currency, and in 1913, the US dollar became a world currency when the Federal Reserve Board was created. As of that moment, Mayer’s dynasty working out of the City in London controlled two major world currencies. In 1914, it had the wherewithal to get rid of all the ancien regimes of the world, what was left of the Holy Germanic Empire, along with the Ottoman Empire, China, Japan, India and Russia. WWI was a first attempt in getting it done. But because the task was so gigantic, it only succeeded partially and Mayer’s dynasty in the City had to repeat the process in 1939. In the meantime, in 1929, it got rid of the English pound as a major world currency, for dealing in two major currencies was counterproductive, and the US dollar was much more popular. WWII proved to be a total success when, in 1944, all the countries of the world gathered in Bretton Woods and signed an agreement whereby they accepted the US dollar as a world reserve currency. The US dollar was now as good as gold worldwide, and all the central banks of the world were now under one roof, so to speak.

Thanks to the gold mined in Russia, South Africa and in other parts of the world, perhaps as much as 200000 tons of the 250000 tons of gold ever mined lie today intact in one place, probably somewhere on the wharf in the City, in London. The US dollar has become as good as gold, we live in the best of all possible worlds, one where world wars are a thing of the past and credit is accessible to all. Meanwhile, we have inherited a world of leisure for which we are not genetically programmed. That is why, if we want to lead fulfilled and happy lives, it is imperative to understand how we got here. This blog is meant to help the willing reader in this endeavor, and will be divided in five parts.

1 – GLORIOUS REVOLUTION

2 – GLORIOUS MAN

3 – GOLD IN THE CITY

4 – GLOBALIZATION

5 – SEXUAL REVOLUTION