39-BOER WARS

 

The story of the City in London is all about gold. Mayer was the founder of international banking because he was the first banker to use gold as it was meant to be used. According to him, gold was not meant to be spent, it was meant to be mined, purchased, and then stockpiled in a secure location for all time. The one who had most of the gold ever mined, could easily control any monetary system at hand. Mayer started the Bank of America in 1781 with around 500 metric tons of French gold. After his real estate scam in France starting in 1789, he managed to funnel another 5000 tons of French gold to the City. In 1810, his son was setting the daily price of gold worldwide from his offices in the City. Nathan had perhaps as much as 7000 metric tons of gold under his control, close to half the gold ever produced at that time. He held most of England’s debt, and was effectively in charge of the English monetary system.

In 1812, Nathan sent Napoleon to Russia in order to force the Tsar to let private interests mine for gold in the Urals, which was a determining moment in our history. Thanks to the French engineers from l’École des Mines de Paris, placer deposit gold mining techniques were refined, and the City focused its attention on gold production.

There was the California gold rush of 1848, and when hard rock mining was made possible in the 1880’s, gold production skyrocketed. Paper money went to the miner, and gold went to the one who printed the paper, the City. As gold was stockpiled by the City, the paper it backed, whether in America or England, became as good as gold. There have never been losers, for the miners get paid the world price set in the City, and Mayer’s dynasty stockpiles the gold and creates more credit.

The total production of gold to date is estimated at around 200000 metric tons. The gold used in jewellery, industry, and dentistry, combined with the token amounts of gold on display in the various Central Banks of Germany, Italy, France, USA, China, Russia etc., probably accounts for around 75000 metric tons. When all is said and done, most gold is held in the form of ETF’s, Exchange-Traded Funds, and though it is impossible to know, there’s at least 100000 metric tons of gold bullion unaccounted for and stockpiled somewhere.

The Boer Wars are forgotten wars, but if one analyzes and correlates the dates and circumstances surrounding the discovery of gold and diamonds in South Africa and the wars that were fought in that country, it becomes clear that they were all about controlling the production of those two precious commodities. In 1879, the British had managed to put an end to the Zulu military might, and in 1880, had declared the South African Republic to be an English possession. But in 1881, the Boers, mainly Dutch white settlers, badly defeated the British troops and forced them to go home. In 1899, this time, with the help of several Commonwealth countries, Britain came back to fight the Boers, and after heavy casualties on all sides, Commonwealth, African and Boer, the British finally prevailed in 1902. The British unilaterally changed the name of South African Republic to Union of South Africa in 1909, while declaring it to be a dominion of the British Empire. Since then, South Africa has produced a disproportionate percentage of the world’s gold, along with most of its diamonds, and continues to do s

38-CITY OF LIGHTS

In France, in 1804, when the Civil Code was rammed through, non-elected Prefects answered directly to the central authority in Paris and ran their departments with the help of the dreaded Fouché police. After Napoleon was sent to St. Helens, Nathan in the City had taken a wait and see attitude in order to determine whether or not a constitutional monarchy was possible for France. Louis XVIII had a go at it, followed by Charles X and Louis-Philippe d’Orléans. Those three monarchies created a lot of turmoil, especially the one headed by Louis-Philippe. When Nathan died in 1836, France was still being plagued by insurrections, and his son Lionel decided to put the French constitutional monarchy matter to rest. Putting a stop to so much unrest in a country Mayer’s family loved, and to which it was so beholding, was the only decent thing to do. Lionel decided to turn Paris into the City of Lights, and give France stability by enshrining the centralist state put in place by Napoleon.

The 500 tons of gold sent as an aid package to America in 1768 had been used by Mayer to open the Bank of North America, and the roughly 5000 tons of French gold generated by the real estate scam in 1789 and stored in the Goldsmid Bros. vaults in the City, had been used by Nathan to take over the Bank of England. Lionel, as head of the family dynasty, controlled the monetary systems of America, England and most of Europe, and he personally wanted to do something for France. This country had given a lot to his family and the world, and yet had been devastated just because it happened to be the cornerstone of the Holy Roman Empire. Things had to be put right.

Adolphe Thiers was an active French political figure from 1825 to 1875, and no doubt worked for the City from the very beginning. After helping to bring down Charles X in 1830, he supported the Orléanist Louis-Philippe and had him elected with Lafayette’s help. The third attempt at Constitutional Monarchy failed miserably, and seeing the insurrections continue, Lionel decided that enough was enough. In 1840, he had Thiers build his infamous wall, and in 1848, he had him support Louis-Napoleon, a Bonapartist, who was easily elected with the help of Victor Hugo.

As of 1840, mindboggling amounts of credit were made available to Thiers to get the wall built around Paris. In 1844, Adolphe Thiers and Baron Haussmann, the Paris Prefect, started levelling whole sections of the city to make wide avenues that would, among other things, facilitate the movement of troops within the city. It included the demolition of crowded and unhealthy medieval neighborhoods, the building of wide avenues, parks and squares, the annexation of the suburbs surrounding Paris, the construction of new sewers, fountains and aqueducts, and row upon row of the most beautifully designed residential buildings in the world. Since gas used for lighting was now accessible throughout the city, Paris became known as the City of Lights. One could ask, however, why they had surrounded Paris with an impregnable thirty-three-kilometer wall bordered by a 250 meter strip of no-man’s land and a huge embankment, and defended by sixteen fort cities that were part of that wall?

It obviously meant there was a bigger Machiavellian plan. In fact, as beautiful as Paris had become, the fortifications had turned Paris into a fishbowl that was meant to contain the Fédérés. When the time came, they would round up the Fédérés and their families and send them into exile to New Caledonia, thereby removing a major political obstructionist force. Although the Fédérés were true democrats, like none before or since, and as appealing as it is in theory, true democracy can’t possibly work. Human nature simply won’t allow it. The only type of democracy possible is one where the monetary system is run by private interests.

If France was to be stabilized, the Royalists, the Fédérés and the Republicans had to be dealt with and put under one administrative roof. The period from 1789 to 1840 had proven that the three groups would never achieve this on their own. The only solution was to enforce the centralist state concept that Napoleon had obligingly put in place in 1804, and have the population elect a new president in rotating fashion for a determined period.

So when the City of Lights was more or less completed in 1870, it was time to get rid of the Fédérés. Louis-Napoleon made the most stupid decision imaginable by declaring war on Prussia over an insignificant diplomatic incident. Even more bizarre, he wasn’t the one who attacked Bismarck, it was Bismarck who attacked him. After the preordained defeat, Louis-Napoleon fled the country, and Thiers, the self-proclaimed head of government, transferred his whole administration to Versailles, and surprisingly came up with the colossal sum of money needed to buy back the 100,000 French prisoners from Bismarck. Surprisingly, it wasn’t Bismarck who marched on Paris, it was Thiers with those same French prisoners. The idea was to surround and imprison the members of the Commune before sending them off into exile, but things didn’t work out as planned. The Fédérés put up too strong a resistance, and Thiers felt the need to commit the worst atrocities. Tens of thousands of Fédérés, including women and children, were executed, while perhaps twice as many were imprisoned under atrocious conditions where many died. Thiers did succeed in exiling thousands of Fédérés to New Caledonia, and although it marked the end of the Fédérés, the Paris Commune remains one of the worst blood baths in history.

On January 3rd, 1875, Henri Wallon tabled an amendment proposing that the President of the Republic be elected by an absolute majority in both the Senate and the House of Representatives for a renewable seven-year period. It became known as the Constitutional Laws of 1875 which officially turned France into a centralist state. Thiers, who had been chosen as the 1st President, conveniently resigned, and Patrice MacMahon, a catholic aristocrat who was neither monarchist nor republican, was elected to succeed him. The wall that had cost countless billions to build was torn down, and the Stockholm syndrome kicked in. The French have since put their trust in one man, their President. They trust l’État more than they do their fellow citizens, and not surprisingly, the people’s Assembly is full of duly-elected mayors and regional presidents, all bona fide civil servants who answer to their Prefect, who in turn answers directly to the President. They elect a president, a “father knows best” figure, and he somehow becomes l’État

29-TAKEOVER IN THE CITY

Prior to sending Bonaparte to Egypt in 1799, Mayer, who now controlled the English monetary system, had wanted to end the Quasi-War by destroying the very royalist and redundant French Navy. Because the Goldsmid Bros., who represented Mayer’s interests in the City, didn’t have the drive and energy to get the job done, Mayer decided to send Nathan, his very capable 21 year-old son, to England and take charge of things. If Bonaparte was to be instrumental in stopping the Quasi-War, it had to be done without his knowledge, and since he was a dangerous megalomaniac, he had to be handled with care. Under his father’s direction, Nathan had told Ouvrard, to do whatever was necessary to get Talleyrand and Barras to send young Bonaparte on his Egyptian campaign, and we know the results of that campaign.

The Quasi-War had to do with the signing of Jay’s Treaty in 1793, a trade agreement that Mayer and Benjamin had deemed indispensable to the growth of the American economy. America and France had signed a Treaty of Alliance in 1778, and Jay’s Treaty was technically superseding that agreement. The French and many Americans had been incensed. It had been seen as a treacherous act by both the US Congress and the Directorate in France. Naturally, the French revolutionaries insisted on the return of the 500 tons of French gold given to America in 1778. However, Congress didn’t have any way of doing that, for as far as it was concerned, the gold was all spent.

In trying to avoid retaliation by the French, Mayer had asked Morris to get Congress to send an American delegation to Paris to negotiate a repayment scheme involving the purchase of Louisiana. Mayer was proposing a plan on how to broker a deal between America and France. If America bought Louisiana from France, the latter would receive a huge sum of money in compensation, and the Quasi-War would stop. But first, France had to reclaim the port of New Orleans that they had ceded to the Spanish when they left America after the Treaty of Paris, in 1763. Barras was to get Talleyrand to have the Spanish sign a treaty. He was to promise the Spanish that the half of San Domingo that belonged to them and was presently occupied by France would be returned to them in exchange for New Orleans. Once this was done, he would get the Americans to buy the whole of Louisiana from the French, and it would more than compensate for France’s generosity in 1778.

However, when the American delegation consisting of three diplomats arrived in Paris. They were treated very poorly by the Marquis of Talleyrand who had the gall to request personal compensation in order to intervene on their behalf. The American diplomats were so shocked by this turn of events that they returned immediately to America to report to Congress. Both parties in Congress spoke with one voice in condemning the French response to their genuine peace overture. Meanwhile, the French Navy started seizing and sinking American merchant ships in the Caribbean, while the fledgling US Navy retaliated as best it could. That’s where things stood in late 1797, and from Mayer’s point of view, the Quasi-War had to be stopped before it escalated.

Mayer didn’t want the English Navy getting involved in the Quasi-War. He controlled the American monetary system, that of England through the Goldsmid Bros., and indirectly that of France, and he didn’t want the three countries who were now under his financial control to be fighting each other. France was definitely not an enemy, but its very powerful royalist navy was a real nuisance, for it was hampering trade in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. America, England and France were unofficially trading partners, and one navy was all that was needed, the English Navy. If the Quasi-War was to be nipped in the bud, the French Royalist Navy had to be destroyed.

In France, Mayer had directed Ouvrard to finance both Barras and Talleyrand, his main advisor. Mayer was happy with the Barras-Talleyrand team, for such individuals were easily bought and disposed of. But it was time to start thinking about having a strong man to replace them. Bonaparte would take over from Barras, and his son Nathan, the pugnacious one, would take over from the Goldsmid Bros. in the City.

In order to ensure his anonymity, when Nathan first arrived in England, he set himself up as a textile merchant from Frankfurt. By 1810, he was the wealthiest banker in the City, and he was setting the price of gold for the whole world on a daily basis. Maybe the expression ‘rags to riches’ was inspired by Nathan’s apparent exploit. In fact, Mayer had wanted to make sure Nathan didn’t have any official ties with him or the First Bank of the United States. When Nathan opened his bank in the City, using his own name, all possible ties to his father, the First Bank of the United States, and the French real estate scam disappeared. Nobody would ever know where all that power, wealth and gold came from. Anonymity was the key to success.

Other than wanting to do a good job and making his father proud, Nathan had another pressing personal matter. He had been introduced to two families in London, and though it had been Moses Elias Montefiore’s family that had taken him in, Nathan had closer ties to the Levy-Barent Cohen family from when he was 18. In 1795, on a trip to America with his father and brothers, they had stopped over in London, and that’s when Nathan had met Hannah Cohen who was 12 at the time. When he arrived in London in 1798, he was quite anxious to see the girl he had dreamt about during all those years.

He lost no time in founding a family. In 1806 he married Hannah Cohen, in 1808 Lionel was born, and in 1809 he moved to St. Swithin’s Lane in New Court, where he proceeded to set up the official home of his banking dynasty. But first, Nathan had to take over from the Goldsmid Bros.

He was helped by destiny in that Benjamin Goldsmid committed suicide in 1808 just prior to Nathan’s moving to Swithin’s Lane. It was said that Benjamin had been depressed for some time. When his 19-year old son converted to Anglicanism, it had shaken him up, and when his wife and daughters followed suite, it appeared to do him in. At that time, he had expressed the thought that he was saddened to be the last Jew in his family, and that no doubt had led him to be further depressed, enough to take his life. One morning, he was found in his bedroom dangling at the end of his bathrobe chord.

Abraham was troubled by his brother’s suicide, and doubly so because he was now alone in facing his firm’s business obligations. He had bought £14,000,000 of Government Consols, and in order to do so he had contracted a sizeable loan with the East India Company in Amsterdam. In 1810, for reasons unknown to the public, the East India Company called in Abraham’s loan. That of course forced him to sell the Consols at a loss, thus making him suffer a huge loss that resulted in the insolvency of the firm. Abraham honorably used the whole of his personal assets to pay back what he owed, and that left him penniless. He committed suicide in 1810. A handgun was found near his body lying in a wooded area not far from his home.

Nathan was a very able and energetic young man. The French Navy was given a serious blow at Aboukir in 1799, and was completely wiped out at Trafalgar in 1805. He ended the Quasi-War by arranging the Louisiana Purchase and making funds available to the US Congress regarding the actual purchase. The proceeds of that sale were given to Bonaparte who immediately crowned himself Emperor Napoleon. Napoleon then turned France into an orderly centralist state before taking off and defeating the Holy Roman Empire at the Battle of Austerlitz. By 1810, Napoleon had served his purpose, and it was time to get rid of him. But Nathan thought he could use him one last time by sending him to Russia in order to force the Tsar to open the country to gold mining companies. There would always be time to get rid of Napoleon.

27-RECRUITING BONAPARTE

 

1n late 1793, news arrived regarding the Vendean genocide that had claimed another 6000 Catholic mothers, fathers and children, and the Toulon massacre where another 1000 innocent were massacred. This was very hard for Gretel to swallow, for she hadn’t yet gotten over Marie-Antoinette’s execution on Oct. 14th of that same year. If her man was the most powerful banker in the world, and he was, he just had to do something about stopping the Illuminati from venting their hatred on the people.

Mayer agreed to do something. The time had come to put an end to the terror. He wrote to Ouvrard telling him to finance Barras when the latter arrived in Paris. He was to give him all the means necessary to put an end to the Paris Commune working out of Paris City Hall. Not only was Robespierre running the guillotine at full speed, but he had set up procedures for mass trials where 50-60 were executed at a time.

Barras became very affluent in a very short period of time, and he took charge of the Convention. He was named commander of the Paris military forces and charged with protecting the Convention. In July, 1794, he pushed a vote through for the execution of Robespierre and all the other lunatics. The French Revolution ended overnight. When the Royalists threatened to take control of the Convention, Barras readied his military forces to stop them, which they did on October 5, 1795. It was on this occasion that he employed an idle Bonaparte who had long sought from the revolutionary government to be reinstated as brigadier general. Barras employed him in the most useful way possible, he gave him command of his forces. After the massacre of 300 royalist parliamentarians on the steps of St. Roch Church, the young general received all the honors of victory. Barras praised him highly in the presence of the assembly, and his appointment to the rank of general of division was voted by acclamation while his protector, Barras, settled in the Luxembourg Palace.

Barras was much less concerned with business than with pleasure. He soon had horses, hounds, servants, and a court full of beautiful mistresses in his different estates, and he maintained his authority over his fellow directors by the violence of his character. While he seriously lacked in eloquence, he made up for it by dominating discussions with boldness and crudeness.

However, careful not to show blatant greed, Barras was more disposed to accept huge sums of money from military suppliers and big business in a covert way. Ouvrard himself gave him a contract to supply the Navy. To his many friends, he handed out huge quantities of worthless Assignats along with confiscated national properties such as the Hotel de la Rue des Francs-Bourgeois, the Hotel de la Rue de Babylone, and the Castle of Ruel. He kept for himself the Castle of Grosbois which became both his summer headquarters and his hunting lodge. Suppliers, solicitors, horses, and adventurers of all kinds, accompanied Barras wherever he went. Barras was the most popular of the five directors even though his government was composed of many nobles. His court presented a singular mixture of the biggest names of old aristocratic France and of ‘nouveaux riches’. He could afford to do so, being indirectly financed by Mayer, and having the full support of Bonaparte to whom he had given his mistress, the widow of General Beauharnais.

From his headquarters in Luxemburg Palace, Barras became known as the rotten king. Of course, this dictatorship wasn’t meant to please the Royalists who were almost totally excluded from power, but they weren’t about to demonstrate in the streets of Paris again, especially since Bonaparte, the ruthless one, was in charge of the Paris garrison and was protected by Barras. After the Toulon massacre, when Barras had asked him to take charge of the Paris Garrison and protect the Convention, Bonaparte had warned Barras, “Once my sword is drawn, it will not be sheathed until order is restored”.

On March 9, 1796, Bonaparte married Josephine de Beauharnais. Two days after his marriage, Barras sent him off to take charge of the Army of Italy. It was quite a promotion, but what he found was an army that was weak, hungry, tired, and running out of supplies. Nonetheless, in less than one year, he had recruited one hundred and fifty thousand soldiers, five hundred and forty cannons, not to mention horses, uniforms and weapons for all.

When he went to Italy, he was quite aware that his future rested on his grognards’ shoulders, and he set about turning them into soldiers. In no time, he had them eating out of his hand, and if they called him “Petit Caporal,” it was not because of his rank or his size, it was an affectionate term they used in addressing a great General who spoke their language. He made them feel he was one of them by showing great familiarity without ever jeopardizing his commander status. He was a man of stature who treated them with respect.

Bonaparte authorized his soldiers to take what they needed in an orderly way, and because northern Italy was such a rich region, the conquering army soon started looking like one. As Bonaparte’s fame and fortune grew, so did his soldiers’ self-esteem, for they were the recipients of many promotions and decorations and they basked in glory, as well. In no time at all, the “grumblers” were draped in well-fitting uniforms, had shining weaponry, and the officers were riding spirited horses. The medals that were handed out in profusion made the spectacular uniforms even more striking. It was only natural for Bonaparte to make Italy his home base, where he accumulated victories and worked on his propaganda machine, for he had Italian blood and spoke Italian.

While he ruled in Italy, Bonaparte never stopped chasing the Austrians. Throughout the autumn of 1796, he whittled away at the Austrian army with victories at Castiglione, Bassano and Arcole. In March 1797, just two months after routing the enemy at Rivoli and driving them from northern Italy, he crossed the Alps into Austria itself, and by April 7, 1797, was within seventy-five miles of Vienna. Stunned by the advancing French armies, the Austrian Emperor sued for peace. Bonaparte personally negotiated with the Austrian diplomats.

His way of fighting was like no other before him, he made great use of artillery, moved his army with lightning speed, and never satisfied with just winning a battle, he always went in for the kill. He was a ruthless foe, using tactics unknown until then to Ancien Regime field commanders.

Each victory was not only related in detail, often in advance, but embellished as well. In every French village, it was a common occurrence to hear the church bells heralding a news bulletin describing the great exploits of Bonaparte, the crier never failing to stress the General’s great courage and prowess. The fact that these bulletins were more often than not written by the great man himself didn’t seem to bother anybody. The French were a battered people and they couldn’t get enough of these great military feats involving brave Frenchmen. Bonaparte was building a solid reputation that no one in metropolitan France would dare attack, not even the newly-entrenched landed gentry. Understandably, when he returned to France in 1797, he was acclaimed as a hero.

Because Bonaparte was popular and a nuisance, Talleyrand and Barras encouraged him to go to Egypt. Mayer had told Ouvrard to agree to the financing, and Bonaparte was quick to go and seek glory. Bonaparte didn’t know that the bankers in the City wanted to destroy a redundant French Navy which happened to be a Royalist power house. After Bonaparte unloaded his troops along the Egyptian coast, the French Fleet would naturally find a place to lay at anchor while waiting for the troops to return. Ouvrard would then inform the Goldsmid Bros. who in turn would leak the information to the Admiralty in London, and the British Navy would naturally be rushed to the spot in order to sink the French Navy. A new war tactic was being created, that of financing both sides in order to get the desired results.

When Bonaparte went off to Egypt in early 1798, the Directorate had chosen Admiral de Brueys to command the fleet. Bonaparte had no choice but to accept this incompetent, boot-licking coward, but he wasn’t overly concerned, for all he wanted was to get as many men as he could to the other side of the Mediterranean. Bonaparte even sacrificed space and sailors aboard the ships in order to transport more soldiers. Bonaparte was quite eager to go to the Middle East. He must have dreamt of riches and glory by reclaiming Palestine and constructing the Suez Canal in order to dominate trade with India. Pillaging Egypt was no doubt in the back of his mind.

Admiral Horatio Nelson was the one chosen by the English Admiralty to command the English Fleet. Nelson was taking the looming battle very personally and very seriously. Like most of his countrymen, he wanted to settle the score for what had happened at Yorktown. The English Naval defeat in America had not gone down well, and Nelson had taken off with fourteen ships filled with hooligans hell-bent on killing frogs. Meanwhile, unsuspectingly, after unloading Bonaparte’s army, De Brueys anchored down in the Bay of Aboukir.

Although his naval force was inferior to that of Admiral de Brueys, Nelson was itching for a fight. When the English fleet was spotted in early afternoon on August 1st, 1798 by the artillery unit deployed on the heights dominating the entrance to the Bay of Aboukir, the Commandant of the French unit duly gave the alert, but there was no reaction on the part of Admiral de Brueys. His ships were at anchor, chained together from bow to stern, thus forming an impenetrable line of defense… or so he thought. Many of his more intrepid officers, Vice-Admiral Cheyla and others, insisted he recall the sailors who were on shore and immediately take the offensive, for the favorable winds would have given them a decisive advantage. But he chose to do nothing as fourteen ships filled with vengeful, bloodthirsty Englishmen came bearing down on him.

Admiral de Brueys reasoned that it was 5:00 pm and was too late in the day for the English to attack. Not only did he not recall the men on shore, but he didn’t even see the need to position frigates at the head of his anchored fleet to stop Nelson from sailing behind his position. It was as though he had decided to self-destruct. The great admiral kept repeating that Nelson would not attack on that day. So, the canons were not in position and the decks were cluttered with everything except cannon balls, powder, and artificers.

Upon seeing the French fleet in such a vulnerable position, Nelson kept on going and attacked the ships on both port and starboard sides simultaneously. The French fleet was blown out of the water, while Nelson’s ships remained unscathed. Admiral Villeneuve, who commanded the flotilla at the head of the line and who could have used the favorable winds to counterattack, courageously escaped, thus saving two ships of the line and two frigates.

The Egyptian campaign thus began in defeat. The only good thing that came out of the whole campaign was due to the great number of scientists he had brought along with him. They, at least, were responsible for some major scientific discoveries. Politically, Bonaparte did leave behind a more efficient Egyptian governing body. However, with regards to the survey of the proposed Suez Canal, the plan to connect the Mediterranean with the Red Sea was stopped dead in its tracks. Because it was wrongly concluded that the waterway would require locks to operate and would be very expensive and take a long time to construct, it was abandoned. The survey report made clear that the Red Sea was 33ft higher than the Mediterranean, an error of monumental proportion.

Bonaparte had several costly victories in Palestine, but they all went for naught. And although he had accumulated tons of artifacts, he had no ships to bring them back to France. Leaving his army behind in Egypt, he took off for Paris. But his propaganda machine had again worked wonders, and when he arrived in Paris, he was again acclaimed as a hero. Barras quietly retired, while Sieyes was given the responsibility of working on the Civil Code with Cambaceres, and Bonaparte casually assumed power by becoming 1st Consul.

26-TERROR

 

In the latter part of 1792, the Illuminati set up a shadow government, the Paris Commune, in the Paris City Hall. Sitting as Montagnards in the Legislative Assembly, their representatives voted to abolish the Assembly and replaced it with a new political body, the Convention. That’s when the September Massacres were perpetrated. For a whole week, teams of workers went about butchering a lot of innocent people. They would leave Paris City Hall in the morning, with their aprons and hatchets, and go and butcher inmates and patients in prisons and hospitals. They would return at night with bloodied axes and sullied aprons to collect their day’s pay. It transfixed the French and all of Europe with fear. And even worse, as the September Massacres were being carried out, the guillotine started beheading innocent people by the thousands. The Illuminati were not only bringing down the Ancien Regime, the political system, they were also venting their deep festering hatred. Unfortunately, it was the citizens who were taking the brunt of the violence.

Needless to say, as Terror spread to the other French cities, and especially after the royal family was guillotined, the Roman Catholic Empire put all its might behind the Federalists in order to protect the catholic populations that were resisting in the Vendean region to the west and most of the major French cities.

In retaliation, the revolutionary government gave orders to apply scorched earth tactics to the Vendean region, and a genocide was carried out. Terror was also being carried out in other cities, especially in the port of Toulon to the south. The Federalists had taken Toulon with the help of the French navy whose many Royalist commanders espoused their cause. However, once in command of the port, faced with a superior advancing Convention army who had just defeated their counterparts in Nimes, Avignon and Marseille to the west, the Federalists decided to surrender their city to the English whose navy had been blockading the port. With thousands of English soldiers occupying the port, the Convention forces would easily be kept at bay.

Mayer was appalled by the Vendean genocide where thousands of Catholic men, women and children were in the process of being exterminated. When he heard what was happening in Toulon, he was fully aware of the magnitude of the Terror. The year before, one Paul Barras, an aristocrat, had been elected to the Convention Assembly as a Montagnard representing the Var region. He was an unscrupulous, penniless and debauched individual from a well-to-do and respected family. He was initiated as a Freemason and joined the Jacobin Club like all Illuminati recruits of note. Since he represented the Var and had a military background, he was sent as emissary to the Italian Army Command which had been sent to liberate Toulon. When he got there, the military command was in disarray, and nothing was being done. That’s when a young artillery lieutenant called Bonaparte suggested to the generals that it would be best to shell the port before attempting a frontal attack. The generals paid no attention to him, but Barras did. Since Barras had the authority, he told the generals to give the young man permission to get his canons. In quick order, Bonaparte proceeded to gather all the artillery he could from Marseille and other surrounding cities as well as the Italian Army Command to which he belonged. From the heights of Toulon, Bonaparte had a great advantage over the English forces, and after relentless shelling, the English were forced to flee taking some Federalists with them. But when told what happened to those Federalists who were left behind, Mayer was aghast. Barras and Freron had led their troops into the city and had butchered the Federalists by the thousands. Notably, a wounded Bonaparte hadn’t participated in the massacre, had been made General, and he owed it all to Barras.

While the revolution was being carried out, Ouvrard had kept busy. He had reported to Mayer that the perfectly crafted assignats printed by François in Lyon were circulating without a hitch. In the last three years, his agents working out of the newly-established Masonic Lodges throughout France had purchased tens of thousands of the most prestigious French properties. All the properties had been bought in the name of fictitious individuals, and there was absolutely no trace leading to Ouvrard or Mayer.

The assignats had lost half their value since the first issue in late 1789. Since the Convention insisted on maintaining the original value of the assignats, those with hard currency and bullion hidden away under mattresses, or floor boards, no longer wanted to buy up the assignats. They saw the end of the Terror, the return of law and order and real currency, and they wanted to get their hands on tangible assets. They wanted to buy real estate without having to buy assignats, and getting it at reduced prices was definitely an added incentive. On his own initiative, Ouvrard had started selling off the unwanted secondary assets of the great estates he had purchased. The sale of the detached lands and buildings, as well as the furnishings and livestock, had almost doubled their capital, and the offerings had pacified the local notables and farmers who didn’t have enough money to bid at auction and felt the revolution had cheated them. By encouraging them to pool what metal money they had, Ouvrard had made it possible for them to buy a lot of good property and chattels at an affordable price.

Ouvrard told Mayer that he sometimes hesitated selling off the properties because he didn’t know what prices to set. So far, he was using the original Convention evaluations set in livres, but he wanted to confirm with Mayer what the gold equivalence was. Although there was hardly any metal money in circulation, fortunes in silver and gold were waiting to be invested.

Mayer had obviously thought it all out. The French livre would remain fixed to the English pound. 4 livres worth 1 oz of gold or 16 ozs of silver. With regards to the property values, the Convention evaluations would do just fine. Mayer told Ouvrard he was primarily interested in receiving gold as payment without telling him why. He explained simply it was because of the sixteen to one weight advantage. The accumulated silver was to be used to cover Ouvrard’s commission along with that of his agents. Whatever silver remained was to be converted into gold and sent on by land first to David in Amsterdam, and then by boat to Montefiore in London. Montefiore would see that it was deposited in the Goldsmid Bros. vaults. Mayer estimated that at the present rate some five thousand tons of gold would be deposited in the City before it was all over.

The agents in France were extremely motivated, for they were becoming rich beyond their wildest dreams, commissions on billions of pounds were being paid out in silver. However, Mayer had wanted to thank them in a special way. He told Ouvrard that when the bulk of the Émigré real estate was bought up, he and the agents would be free to use their commissions to bid on any property they wanted. When the auctions stopped, he was to tell François to stop printing assignats. Mayer would acquaint François with that decision from his end.

Soon, Mayer would need to have one of his sons take charge of family affairs in the City. Amschel, eldest son and future head of the family, would remain in charge in Frankfurt. Nathan, the pugnacious one, would be sent to the City in London when he reached 21, in five years’ time. Nathan had met a lot of people when they had stopped in London on their way to America in 1790, and particularly remembered one Levy Barent-Cohen, a gruff older gent who had a delightful daughter. Nathan was looking forward to going to London for several reasons.

25-REAL ESTATE SCAM

Part III                              Glorious City

                          How gold was accumulated in the City

25-Real estate scam

26-Terror

27-Recruiting Bonaparte

28-Takeover in the City

29-Holy Roman Empire

30-Moscow Campaign

31-Waterloo

 

In early 1790, Mayer left for America with his three teenage sons, Amschel, Salomon and Nathan. The last time he had travelled to the new world was in 1785 when he went to arrange for the transfer of power following Haym’s death. On this present trip, he wanted the boys to meet Ephraim Hart, the political leaders, and the people who helped create the Bank of North America. He also wanted to expose them to life in America. He especially wanted the boys to meet Benjamin Franklin before it was too late. Unfortunately, Benjamin was old and in poor health, and they arrived too late.

But business carried on. Mayer met with Moses Hayes in Boston, Ephraim Hart in New York and the Gratz Brothers in Philadelphia. Robert Morris who had done such a superb job as head of the Bank of North America and Superintendent of Finance had passed on the torch to his young protégé, Alexander Hamilton, who was now Secretary of the Treasury. Alexander was a true prodigy and was handling the young nation’s finances brilliantly. When Mayer met with Robert Morris, he told him how satisfied he was with their work, and that he and Alexander were now officially part of his extended family. They were hereafter free to use their own good judgment in the running of the country’s finance. Of course, Robert was to consult with Alexander, Moses, Ephraim and the Gratz Brothers if urgent matters came up, or directly with Mayer in Frankfurt if he deemed it necessary.

He then met with Washington in his magnificent renovated Mount Vernon estate and congratulated him on his election victory. He had assured him that since trade and commerce was developing at breakneck speed, he and his political supporters would continue receiving unlimited funding in order to carry out their mandates as they saw fit.

Next, he met with Alexander Hamilton and congratulated him on getting George Washington elected. He also told him how impressed he was with the work he and Robert Morris were doing. He then brought up the subject of the Bank of North America charter that was expiring in 1791. Hamilton was way ahead of him on that one, for a first draft of the 1st Bank of the United States of America charter that was to run for another twenty years was already being circulated and was meeting with very little opposition. Mayer was indeed impressed by this young man.

The states were developing by leaps and bounds, Mayer’s people were rich and getting richer, and his bank’s charter was about to be renewed for another twenty years. There was absolutely nothing for Mayer to worry about. He always surrounded himself with Ashkenazi if he could, for they were his people, and he could trust them with his life. If he recruited people like Morris and Hamilton it was because of their talent and because, as goys, they were indispensable in representing his interests within the sphere of government. In all cases, his main objective was to command genuine loyalty. He made sure his collaborators always had enough money to reach any goal or satisfy any whim without their having to ask Mayer. People don’t necessarily like being on a string, but severing a link to such bounty is unthinkable, especially when it’s so easy to forget the string exists. One thing was certain, America and his bank could look forward to twenty years of peace and prosperity.

The only matters that needed immediate attention were getting permanent residences for the President and Congress. Mayer’s associates all agreed that having the federal capital at the head of the Potomac River was the best choice. The area would be slightly in the southern portion of the new nation, and strategically, it was well-protected. They all agreed that the President and his staff should have a residence separate from that of the people’s representatives. Although the constitution, drafted by Hamilton, Madison, and Jefferson who had just come back from Paris, had been signed the year before, some states were still holding back. However, Alexander was certain the Compromise of 1790, that he had drafted according to Mayer’s wishes, would be accepted and would lead the way in the creation of a strong federal state.

Before setting sail for the trip home, Mayer and the boys decided it would be a good idea to go by way of Paris, in order to see what was happening in France. Mayer was also anxious to know how much gold bullion his real estate operations were generating. When they arrived in Amsterdam, they took a Thurn and Taxis mail coach in order to avoid problems with the French authorities. Mayer had written ahead to David Schiff, Moses Montefiore, Francis Baring and Gabriel Julien Ouvrard, and the Goldsmid Bros. in order to convene them to a meeting in Paris. His associates were perceptive men who knew London, Amsterdam and Paris well, men who kept abreast with what was happening in Europe generally, and France in particular.

The meeting took place in Gabriel’s mansion in Paris. Since it wasn’t a good idea to show off one’s wealth in France at that time, they kept the meeting low key which suited Mayer very well. Mayer and the boys listened with the greatest attention as they were briefed on the state of the real estate sales and on the latest developments of the ongoing revolution.

The counterfeit assignats printed by Johannot went undetected, and all of Ouvrard’s agents, Huguenots who were now working out of the lodges of the Grand Orient of France, were buying the prodigious properties as they were put on the auction block throughout France. Ouvrard had already started selling the properties for metal currency, mainly gold. As the sales were completed, Baring conveyed the gold to London via Rotterdam where it was deposited in the Goldsmid vaults in the City. Schiff in Rotterdam and Montefiore in London were to make sure everything went smoothly. So far, there had been no hitches and the elite group assembled in Paris didn’t foresee any. Mayer’s boys were in admiration of their father who had set up such a marvelous scam where no one was harmed that hadn’t already been harmed.

Mayer and the three boys left Paris in good spirits, except for Nathan who was complaining about not being allowed to go and witness the demolition of the Bastille prison. In order to humor Nathan, Mayer talked about plans for the family as it pertained to London. Soon, he would need to have one of his sons take charge of family affairs in the City. It was a foregone conclusion that Amschel, the eldest son, would be the future head of the family and remain in charge in Frankfurt. Mayer planned to send Salomon to Vienna to supervise the massive banking operations in the loosely united Holy German Empire. As for London, since Nathan spoke English best, he would be sent to the City when he reached 21.

When Mayer got back to Frankfurt, the first thing he did was sit down with his only confidante, his wife Gretel, and acquainted her with the latest developments in America and France. All was going as planned in America, and there wasn’t much to add. Benjamin’s passing had been deeply felt by Mayer, but the 1st Bank of the USA was about to receive a 20-year charter, and the buildings housing the President and Congress would be built at the head of the Potomac River to the south. With Morris and Hamilton at the helm, things could not have been better.

In France, however, it was another matter. The year before, the Illuminati had financed a meeting of provincial representatives who had been either named or elected and asked to draw up lists of grievances in view of bringing them to the King’s attention. When they congregated in Versailles, the clergy and nobility refused to sit in the same room with them, and the King cancelled the meeting. Mirabeau, the undeclared leader, then convinced the people’s representatives to hold a meeting on their own. Naturally, when they declared their body to be the official government of France, the King sent in the National Guard to disperse them. Mirabeau seized the moment, stood up to the sergeants, and the assembly refused to disband.

While this was going on, programmed famines were creating havoc in all the major French cities. In Paris, the Illuminati were promoting meetings where unsavory characters met at the Palais Royal, the Paris residence of the King’s brother, the Grand Master of the Orient of France. The courtyard had become a meeting place for all the hotheads and lowlifes who were attracted by the firebrand speeches. Last July, a throng had assembled in the courtyard, and fired up by the speeches, went and stormed the Bastille, the much hated royal prison. The prison governor was decapitated and his head was paraded through the streets of Paris.

A few weeks later a procession of very odd masculine ladies accompanied by Lafayette’s National Guard went to fetch the royal family in Versailles. Versailles had been financed and built in anticipation of this very moment, a time when the absentee King would be forced to answer to his people in Paris. Without any opposition, the royals were brought back to Paris where they were put under house arrest in the Tuileries. The National Constituent Assembly thought it best to follow the King to the Tuileries in order to remain at the center of power. The National Assembly then had to find a source of revenue. So, as expected, they voted to confiscate church property and proceeded to print Assignats, certificates sold for hard currency and that were to be used to buy confiscated Church property at the different auctions.

Gretel already knew that Mayer was involved in buying the properties with French counterfeit money, and reselling them to the French for gold. Nevertheless, Mayer reiterated that what he was doing was not for personal gain, but rather to accumulate gold. France was being flooded with counterfeit bills, and there was a lot of confusion, but the high quality bills used by Mayer’s agents were going undetected. The agents working for Ouvrard, and consequently for Mayer, had already bought a considerable number of prestigious properties and were selling them at a reduced price as long as gold was used for the transaction. At auction, the French, who were outbid by Mayer’s agents who had unlimited amounts of bills, were quite willing to buy the properties at a lower price from those same agents. Ouvrard then sent the gold bullion to the Goldsmid Bros. in the City, in London. Francis Baring, the Chairman of the East India Company in Amsterdam, was charged with the responsibility of conveying the bullion to the Goldsmids. Necessarily, the Goldmids were becoming the biggest shareholders in the Bank of England, and David in Amsterdam and Montefiore in London were making sure the gold transfers were going well. Everybody earned a generous commission and was becoming very rich. As the bullion entered the Goldsmid vaults, it was stockpiled and remained so. The City was a state within a state and the gold was well protected.

Nobody knew what Mayer was really worth, most didn’t even know he existed. Some people knew he was rich, but they also knew he lived in a ghetto, and they didn’t know what to make of it. Mayer already controlled the monetary system of the United States of America, which meant he had the final say in what was to be financed and what direction that country would take. In time, the American politicians would question the bank’s origins and wonder who the owners were, but Mayer would maintain his anonymity. People didn’t know that what was best for the bankers was also what was best for the people, and they tended to envy and even revile the bankers who as far as they were concerned enriched themselves at their expense. Since there was not much they could do if they didn’t know where to point the finger, that’s the way it would continue to be. As long as everybody was kept guessing concerning the working of the monetary system, and as long as Mayer did what was best for the country, the people would eventually and grudgingly accept the fact that it was the only way democracy could work without ever understanding what democracy was.

22-WILHEMSBAD

On a beautiful spring day of 1782, Gretel was sitting on the grass in front of the newly-built Green Castle watching a gentle brook trickling down into a pond. The deer, and the swans paddling around the water lilies, completed the idyllic landscape. Mayer was by her side, her boisterous children were running around chasing the strange creatures that populated the marvelous gardens, and she was overwhelmed by a feeling of well-being. But even though Mayer owned the property, it was part of the goy world, a world that Gretel preferred to avoid.

The castle had two annexes hidden from the castle, one to house the castle staff, and the other, the ground staff. The neoclassical structure made of fine white stone had a large two-story centrepiece with two three-story wings. Peter Heinrich von Bethmann, who fronted Mayer’s operations, was the official resident and lived in the east wing with his family. The west wing was reserved for Mayer’s private use. The many offices needed for the considerable office staff along with the reception areas were located in the centerpiece. With young Carl Friedrich Buderus, his assistant, in the counting house in Hanau, and a very able Moses Kuhn running the Fahrgasse office in Frankfurt, Mayer was able to spend ever more time at Green Castle, the undisclosed head office of his fast developing international banking network.

The children loved to come to Green Castle and the castle staff was always happy to fuss over them. And because the boys were interested in their father’s business, Mayer let them roam around freely. The boys would soon be an integral part of his banking operations, and it was never too soon to start their education. Amschel was already nine years old and spoke German fluently. Eight-year old Salomon was a quiet boy just like his brother, and he was also doing well in German. Five-year old Nathan, on the other hand, was a real pest. He never stopped asking questions and was never satisfied with the answers the staff gave him. He opened drawers, wanted to learn to use everything lying around on the desks, but especially, he wanted to know what was in the basement vault.

Since Gretel saw the sumptuous Green Castle as a threat to her family, and Mayer proceeded to reassure her. He told her that though their children would know a different world, the family’s roots were so deep, its values so time-honoured and its commitment to honesty so true, that the children would never forget their upbringing. The boys were sure to become powerful men and live with goys, but they would always remember their roots and their values. Tthough their children would know a different world, the family’s roots were so deep, its values so time-honoured and its commitment to honesty so true, that the children would never forget their upbringing. The boys were sure to become powerful men and live with goys, but they would always remember their roots and their values.

Mayer was right, thought Gretel, Judengasse may have been a narrow sunless street but it was the artery that had brought life, love, and joy of living to them all. Nobody who had lived there could ever forget the bonds that held the community together. But now that Mayer’s bank, the Bank of North America, had been accepted as the official bank of the United States of America, Gretel wondered if he had plans for the boys.

Mayer repeated that the boys would know a very different world, but for now, what was about to take place in Hanau, was his main concern. Prince William was hosting a meeting in Wilhelmsbad, and the participants were coming from all over Europe. The Illuminati, or Enlightened Ones, as they liked to call themselves, were preparing to free mankind from the yoke of the Holy Roman Empire. The Huguenots businessmen with the Sephardi bankers in London and Amsterdam wanted to destroy the Ancien Regime, and that meant France, the cornerstone of that antiquated political regime.

The Huguenots and Sephardim had originally been motivated by deep-rooted hatred when they got together and created the East India Company in 1600. Their first order of business was to demolish their enemy’s stronghold, France. The first thing they had done was isolate the French King by financing the construction of the Chateau de Versailles. Now, a century later, they were getting ready to topple Louis XVI. However, in order to infiltrate France, they needed a communications network. Masonic Lodges had been implanted in France since 1773, and the bankers had even recruited the King’s cousin and made him Grand Master of the Grand Orient of France. The idea was to have the Grand Orient of France break off completely from the Scottish rite where members had to swear on the Roman Catholic bible. They wanted to have a lay institution that would serve as their network. Prince William had been very sympathetic to this idea, and had allowed them to hold a meeting in Wilhelmsbad near Hanau.

Jean-Baptiste Willermoz, a very prominent and well-respected French Freemason, was the one who organized the meeting, but violent men like Adam Weishaupt also participated. This Weishaupt was heard to say that his only hope was to one day see the last priest strangled with the guts of the last king left standing. This did not augur well for France who would no doubt be subjected to a great deal of violence. Regardless, for the time being, the intent was to transform freemasonry by doing away with the Scottish Rite that governed it.

The Illuminati’s ultimate goal was to have a network in order to undermine the French political structures, force the absentee King in Versailles to agree to a Constitutional Assembly, and then take control of the monetary system like they had in England, a hundred years earlier. They were already making plans to nationalize and sell Church property in order to finance the new government. To accomplish this, they had recruited a very powerful individual by the name of Mirabeau who just happened to be a physiocrat. Mirabeau believed like many French economists of the times that the wealth of nations was derived from the value of land. Benjamin Franklin had held similar ideas when Mayer had first met him, but his thinking had since changed. Benjamin was now in Paris and was keeping Mayer informed of developments. Mirabeau was putting forth the idea of printing and selling notes backed by confiscated Church property that would then be sold off at auction.

Notes backed by Church property couldn’t help but be a huge success at the outset, and the bankers in the City as well as Mayer knew that human nature being what it is, the people’s representatives would be inclined to print ever more notes based on that success. The Bank of England would then surely take advantage of the situation by dumping a gigantic amount of counterfeit notes into the French economy in order to depreciate the French currency before taking control of the monetary system and creating a Constitutional Monarchy with Mirabeau as Prime Minister.

But Mayer told Gretel that he had his own plan. He would ask François, the silk manufacturer, who had been a very successful printer and engraver in Lyon before coming to Frankfurt, to meet with him. Since his silk mill had not been doing all that well in Frankfurt, Mayer had appointed him to run the goldsmith house in Hanau a few years back. He had been teaching gold engraving while working on stereotype printing in his spare time. Printing was his first love, and since he missed France, Mayer asked him if he would like to return to Lyon. Mayer was offering to kick-start his old printing business.

If the Bank of England planned to print counterfeit French notes, so could Mayer. If François returned to Annonay, south of Lyon, and bought back his printing business, when the time came, he would be ready to print the notes as fast as the new government printed them, and just as important, he would have access to the same paper. He had just perfected a wet mat method for creating matrixes for stereotype printing, and not only would his notes be of better quality than the original ones, but he would be able to produce them many times faster at a fraction of the cost.

Gretel was shocked to hear she was about to become a counterfeiter’s wife, so Mayer was quick to explain that he was planning to set up a counterfeiting ring alright, but that his action wouldn’t hurt anybody. He wouldn’t be taking property from anyone, for the properties would already be confiscated. All Mayer would do is buy the confiscated properties at auction and sell them back to Frenchmen for gold. The English bankers wanted to destroy the Ancien Regime and make the whole world one big market economy that benefited England, but what Mayer wanted was for America, France, England and the rest of Europe to trade fairly with each other. Mayer saw this clearly and would accomplish this by accumulating all the French gold he could .

Mayer was determined to calm Gretel’s fears by telling her that he was Ashkenazi first, and a banker second, and though he was very rich, he hadn’t changed as a person. He was still Mayer, the happiest man alive, and it was not due to his business activities, but rather to his family. He admitted his ego did influence his business persona, for it was only natural to be proud when one wanted to take over the Bank of England, especially if one knew how to do it. One thing was certain, the Bank of England would be printing counterfeit notes in order to bring down the antiquated political regime of France, and Mayer would join in, but it would be to amass huge quantities of French gold in order to take control of the Bank of England itself.

Mayer started explaining how he planned to do it. He would recruit Huguenot agents who would use the counterfeit money produced by Johannot to buy the properties at auction as they come up on the block in predetermined parts of France. Speaking French and having an unlimited supply of notes, the agents would easily outbid everybody. After they bought the properties, Ouvrard would immediately start reselling them for gold at a discount. The properties being the choicest in the world, the wealthy French having lots of gold hidden under their mattresses, and with the French currency no doubt depreciating at a rapid rate, the affluent would want to invest in real estate directly and bypass the worthless notes. Mayer expected to have accumulated several thousand tons of gold by the time it was all over. The agents would receive considerable commissions, but in silver. The gold bullion would go to the City, in London, where the Goldsmid Bros. would store it in their vaults.

Mayer would not be involved directly, and there would be so much counterfeiting, the French authorities wouldn’t know which way to turn, especially once the English bankers had flooded the market with their own counterfeit notes. Once the French properties were resold, Mayer would have more gold than any individual in the world stockpiled in the City. In a few years’ time, when Nathan became of age, he would replace the Goldsmid Bros. and take charge of the English monetary system.

Gretel wondered what the City was, and Mayer was more than willing to explain. He told her that, in 1694, the English bankers, in wanting to be completely independent of the English Government, had created their own country within the country. The City became the financial district on the banks of the Thames and had the status of a territory. It had its own administration, and it was off limits to all English authorities. It was unassailable financial ground, and Mayer knew that one day soon his son Nathan would be turning it into the center of international finance.