9-GLORIOUS REVOLUTION

The word revolution is a banker’s term. It was used by the owners of the East India Company when they launched their first revolution, in England, in 1688. It was called the Glorious Revolution. A revolution is a well-planned, well-financed affair that succeeds and is permanent in nature. It is always part of a bigger plan for a better world. The Glorious, Industrial, American and French revolutions are all interrelated, and they opened the door to the great world we live in today. A war, an uprising, a rebellion, a revolt, or a military coup can only be called a revolution if it succeeds and is permanent in nature, in other words, if it has the international financiers’ approval.

When the owners of the East India Company decided to finance the construction of the chateau de Versailles, they wanted to destroy the Holy Roman Empire. Naturally, they started with the most obvious target, France, its crown jewel. The construction of the chateau was the first step in a long series of events that would lead to the French Revolution. Construction of the chateau began in 1661, and by 1678, it looked like the chateau we know today. Once things were well under way in France, the owners of the East India Company started planning the Glorious Revolution, the revolution that would lead to a new form of government, democracy.

After his father’s execution in 1649, Charles II of England had fled to the Netherlands where he had lived in exile until he had been invited back in 1660. He subsequently wore the English crown from 1660 until his death in 1685. Much of England grumbled under his rule because he was for letting Catholics sit in parliament, and because he had befriended King Louis XIV of France. The owners of the East India Company, who effectively ran the Netherlands, were quite annoyed with Charles for associating with France’s king of divine right, but when, in 1672, he did Louis XIV a favor by having England declare war on the Netherlands, that was the last straw.

Since Charles II had no legitimate heir, his younger brother, James II, was next in line. While they waited for Charles’ term to run out, the financiers did their best to stoke the anti-royalist feelings among the English parliamentarians. And since James II had a daughter who was being raised as an Anglican, arranging a marriage between her and William III seemed to be the answer to their long term goal. Because James II was catholic, he would be easy to overthrow when the time came, and the crown would then be handed to his Anglican-raised daughter Mary who was next in line.

In 1677, the marriage between Mary II of England and William III of Orange was celebrated in St. James Palace, and it wasn’t a happy affair. At fifteen, an arranged marriage with a much older and repulsive William was not meant to make Mary happy, and she cried throughout the whole ceremony. She had a very unhappy life, especially while in the Netherlands, where she lived for the first eleven years of their marriage. William was a homosexual who spent most of his time leading a double life away from home, and Mary spent all that time in a big cold castle on the outskirts of The Hague. She returned to England in 1688 after the “Immortal Seven” invited her and her husband to come to England and wear the crown. William landed in England with a small army, and he marched on London without hardly firing a shot. James II took off for France, and parliament subsequently declared the crown vacant. William and Mary were then both offered the crown after signing the Bill of Rights which precluded that they submit to parliament’s authority and have no catholic descendants. That series of events is known in the history books as the Glorious Revolution.

However, that was only half of what was to be democracy, England now needed a financial institution. And as it so happened, not about to throw in the towel, and wanting James II to reclaim the crown of England, the Roman Catholic Church gave the financiers the perfect opportunity to create the Bank of England. France’s absolute king of divine right and his powerful navy had just given England a good drubbing, and he was in the process of invading England by way of Ireland. Naturally, the English parliament was asked by King William to retaliate and build a strong navy. But since no public funds were available, and since the credit of William III’s government was non-existent, it was impossible for parliament to borrow the huge sums needed. To induce subscription to the loan, the private subscribers were incorporated into a company that became known as the Bank of England. The Bank was given exclusive possession of the government’s debt, and became the only corporation allowed to issue bank notes. The necessary funds were raised in matter of days, and the private financial institution known to this day as the Bank of England was created

For the first time in the history of mankind, the bankers were sure of being repaid in an orderly and just fashion. Parliament got rid of the antiquated tax collection system inherited from France, and proceeded to develop the country’s infrastructure in order to be better able to collect taxes. The owners of the East India Company had wanted an autonomous parliament because they were banking on a human foible whereby the people’s representatives, once their political campaigns, elections and salaries properly funded, would want to prove their worth and do things before taxes were collected. Since the Bank of England controlled the purse, its shareholders now established in the City could accept or refuse to finance the parliamentarians’ projects, thus indirectly controlling all important developments in the country. That was democracy then, just as it today, and it’s the owners of the East India Company who created the concept. Democracy can only work if the concerned country is indebted, and a democracy is always indebted.

If democracy has proven itself to be the best political system in the world, it’s because people representation and monetary control are separate. The people’s representatives manage things while the bankers decide what’s to be managed by increasing or decreasing the flow of credit. If the one who prints the money is the same as the one who spends it, that is, if the parliamentarians do the printing and the spending, the system can only implode.

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6-PROTESTANT CHRISTIANS

 

The Christian Church was intolerant, exclusive and sanguinary from the very beginning. When, at the Council of Nicaea, it was declared the official religion of the Western Roman Empire, the prelates knew exactly what had to be done. Throughout the empire, those who didn’t want to convert to Christianity would be forced to do so, or be massacred. Not surprisingly, as it spread, the Christian Church fostered much hate, and the seeds of discord were sown far and wide.

The Church of Rome anointed Absolute Kings of Divine Right to rule over given parts of the empire. These kings not only persecuted the Jews, the ‘Christ killers’, but all those who refused to follow the Church’s liturgy, and that included the Muslims of course. For instance, the Pope would suggest the need for a crusade, and the kings and nobles fearing excommunication, or wanting to earn their passage to heaven, would be quick to raise an army, France leading the way. The first crusade was against the Muslims in 1099. After slaughtering the Muslims in Jerusalem, the French conquered Palestine and established the Kingdom of Jerusalem which lasted until the 16th century. In 1209, Pope Innocent III asked the French king to carry out a crusade against his own people, the Cathars, and it lasted from 1209 to 1229. The latter were completely annihilated down to the last ‘good man’ who was executed in 1231, more than a million in all. All this just because the peaceful Cathars refused to accept the Christian Church’s liturgy.

The Church of Rome was built on a lie, and it did everything it could to stop the spread of knowledge and science which, understandably, it perceived as a threat. That ostrich head-in-the-sand approach to knowledge was best demonstrated at the trial of Galileo in 1633. The Christian Church was impermeable to knowledge, and that’s why the Muslims prospered as they spread their learning and science throughout North Africa and Europe. As they advanced, they built great universities such as the one in Timbuktu. As early as 732, they occupied the Iberian Peninsula and had reached as far as Poitiers in France before being pushed back. But they did retain control of the Iberian Peninsula right up to 1492.

The Protestants of France, made up mainly of the entrepreneurial elite of that country, were avid seekers of knowledge and science as well. The fact that the Muslims were pushed out of the Iberian Peninsula at around the same time the Huguenots were making their presence felt in France may not be a coincidence. Regardless, Rome had to get rid of the French Protestants whose numbers were growing rapidly and who posed a real threat, especially after Calvin became their spokesperson. The Huguenots made up only 10% of the population, around two million in all, but they fought back hard against the Church of Rome. However, the atrocities endured over time at the hands of the anointed kings and noblemen of France took their toll, and as many as 800 000 Huguenots left the country, which constituted the biggest brain drain in history.

By the early part of the 16th century, the Church faced a lot of opposition throughout Europe. In 1521, Luther was excommunicated because he strongly opposed the Church with regards to its widespread use and sale of indulgences. In France, Calvin who had given a voice to the French Protestants was forced into exile in 1530. And in England, in 1538, Henry VIII personally replaced the Pope as head of the Church of England.

Luther led many Christians away from the Church of Rome, and the protest would be transformed into a world movement, but it was mainly a theological or intellectual protest. As for Henry VIII, all he had wanted was to have his marriage annulled, but when he kicked the Pope out of England, he lost the services of the financial institution that the Church represented, and he was in dire straits. In his urgent need for credit, Henry not only demolished and sold the Church assets that produced little revenue, but he was forced to use the services of the Jews. England was still very much anti-Jewish, but Jews started being tolerated for their money-lending talents, and became well established in what is today the City, in London.

However, the main opposition on the ground came from the French Protestants. France was the cornerstone of the Holy Roman Empire, and the business community not only protested against the corrupt ways of the Church, but it wanted to be free to interpret the bible as it saw fit and have France open up to the world of knowledge and science. Because Calvin was a formidable religious leader, Rome felt that it had no choice but to treat this tough group of French protesters, better known as Huguenots, with the greatest cruelty. There was much violence on both sides over the years, but when tens of thousands of Protestants were massacred on St. Bartholomew’s day in 1572, 25 000 in Paris alone, it sparked a great exodus.

In the latter part of the 16th century, enemy #1, the Jews, joined up with enemy #2, the Huguenots, in Amsterdam, and the seeds of democracy started germinating on both sides of the channel. For the better part of the 17th century, the Dutch East India Company ruled the oceans of the world.

 

4-COUNCIL OF NICAEA

10 thousand years ago, hominids became sedentary, and 5 thousand years ago, writing and religion became widespread. 2 thousand years ago, Apollonius, an Essene Jew, started preaching goodness and tolerance and had tremendous success throughout the Western Roman Empire and the Middle East. Apollonius, rejected the Jewish scriptures and promoted the idea of following the dictates of Mother Earth, the goddess that engendered all that is good. His followers, called ‘new’ Jews because many weren’t from Palestine, had wanted to have Apollonius recognized as the messiah of mankind, Christ in Greek, but the orthodox Jewish community had refused. By rejecting the idea of circumcision as well as the main body of Jewish scriptures, the ‘new’ Jews created a breach that couldn’t be repaired. In 325 CE (Common Era), faced with a foundering Empire, Emperor Constantine had an idea.

Constantine had been made Augustus of the Western Roman Empire in 313 CE. A previous Emperor, Diocletian, had split the Empire into three parts in order to better rule, but it hadn’t helped, for thereafter the Empire was torn apart by civil war more than ever. Constantine lost no time in defeating and killing Emperors Maxentius and Licinius, in order to become sole ruler. Wanting to establish peace within the Empire before leaving for Byzantium to the east, Constantine proceeded to replace an ineffective impersonal Roman religion with one based on the teachings of the messiah Apollonius. Instead of massacring the Essenes like Diocletian had done, he decided to use them by making the Essene religion the official state religion. In 325 CE, he convened the Council of Nicaea.

Constantine may be revered as a saint by the Greek Christian Church, and somewhat so by the Latin Christian Church which doesn’t quite know what to think of him, but regardless, he was a sanguinary. The Roman Church claims he was baptized on his deathbed, but that seems questionable and irrelevant. Constantine was a brutal man who butchered his enemies and executed his own wife and son. It’s clear that whatever this cruel man did was seeped in raw ambition.

As he convened the Council of Nicaea, Constantine must have insisted on having a few changes made to the about-to-be-created state religion. Apollonius, an Essene who had existed more than three hundred years before, was the acknowledged messiah, a holy man who had not only preached peace and goodwill among men, but also abstinence and respect for all living things. Understandably, a religion that condemned meat eating, wine drinking, lasciviousness and profit making, was out of the question. If it was to be declared the official state religion, it needed a few nips and tucks; it needed to be more in tune with Roman reality.

Although the vast majority of people throughout the Empire were Essenes, called Arians by some, and barbarians by others, there were almost exclusively pro-Constantine prelates at the Council, individuals who were prepared to accept anything in order to have their religion declared the official religion. As it turned out, the revamped messiah not only drank wine and ate fish, but was declared Son of God. The prelates explained it all, in the centuries that followed, by saying that he had been conceived by a virgin who had been visited by a holy spirit. All the scriptures that have come down to us were either created or adjusted at that time in order to give credence to the God-made-man concept. Contrary to Apollonius, the acknowledged messiah, the alleged messiah accomplished a lot of miracles, miracles that were never corroborated by any historian. No matter, presenting the new Christ as the Son of God was something the superstitious hominids of the times would readily believe. It wasn’t much of a stretch for them to believe their Messiah was actually the Son of God who had been sent down on earth and made man in order to save them.

In pursuing their goal, the Church fathers were quite wise in keeping some existing myths. One such myth was a convoluted story where Adam and Eve, the first human couple, had been caught playing house in the Garden of Eden. The deed was so horrendous that God reacted violently and banned the couple and their descendants from the Garden of Eden for all time. Very odd behavior for a master creator who wanted to create a human race! Nonetheless, the Christian gurus’ stroke of genius was to have everybody believe that God changed his mind and sent his son down on earth to die on the cross in order to redeem humans from their ‘original sin’, a curse that was sending hominids straight to hell. From then on, if one wanted God to accept them into the Garden of Eden after death, all he had to do was to have that dreadful first sin washed away from his soul through baptism and to live according to the teachings of the revamped Christ. This transformed the lowly hominids into godlike creatures, and more importantly, they now knew where they came from, why they were here, and where they were going after death. They were relieved from the ‘original sin’, ‘existential sin’, or ‘sin of the flesh’, depending on one’s interpretation.

As for setting Christ’s birthday, it was rather easy. Because he was now considered the giver of eternal life, it was quite logical to have his birth coincide with the greatest event in the sun’s cycle. What happens on the 25th of December is a phenomenon that’s unique and unchanging in the northern hemisphere; the sun stops dropping off the horizon and can be observed reversing itself. Since the increased amount of sunlight is tantamount to a promise of new life, many ancient gods are said to have been born on this day. And since the Romans were used to celebrating Sol Invictus, why not continue the tradition and celebrate Christ’s birth instead?

Christ’s birth year was another matter. The prelates wanted to make it coincide as much as possible with the birth of Apollonius in order to make the imposture credible. So, in Roman Era 1279 (525 CE), a monk called Dionysius Exiguus introduced the Anno Domini calendar. Since the Easter calendar used during the Roman Era was a calendar referring to emperor years, Dionysius said it was intolerable to continually refer to Diocletian, the Emperor who had persecuted and massacred the Essenes, and he set about creating the Gregorian calendar. So, with imaginative arithmetic, he arrived at the conclusion that the Messiah was born in 753 of the Roman Era, and decided that January 1st of year 754 of the Roman Era would be known as January 1st of Year One of the Anno Domini Era (AD). It was much later, in 1582 CE that Pope Gregory, in spite of the dubious arithmetic used by Dionysius, made it official. Ever since, when dating historical events, the whole world uses BC or AD, acronyms that are tied to the birth of Jesus of Nazareth, a fabricated messiah. That’s why some people today prefer to use the acronym CE (Common Era).

The Council of Nicaea was indeed a momentous event, for thereafter, because the Roman Christian Church was now the official state religion, it grew exponentially. As for Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Burgundians, and Vandals, Essenes for the most part, the Christian Church went about converting or massacring them with the help of anointed Absolute Kings of Divine Right, the first being a Frankish warlord called Clovis. After being baptized in Reims in 496 CE, Clovis started doing his godly chores by changing the minds of those who believed Christ was a prophet and not the Son of God. In enforcing the Nicene Creed untold numbers of Essenes were accordingly slaughtered. One could say that the first terrorists in human history were Christians.

Having gotten rid of all opposition, the growth of the new religion knew no bounds, and like a hermit crab, the church made good use of the Roman Empire infrastructure, especially in the Latin half. Having a church and a holy man in every small town fostered a feeling of solidarity and the poor hominids felt secure for the first time in all of their existence. To the east, in the Greek half, it was another matter. The Greek Church refused the authority of the Latin Pope and divided up in parts controlled by separate Patriarchs. And because it also had to face the pressures of the Muslim world, the Greek Church never attained the power and influence of the Latin Church.

The Christian Church very quickly became a considerable worldly power. Charlemagne was crowned Emperor by Pope Theo III in Reims, France, in 800 CE, and many other Kings of Divine Right were subsequently anointed, and ruled over what is now Europe. Because Christians tithed and many bequeathed their estates to the Church in order to ensure their passage to heaven, at one time, the Church owned as much as one third of all the wealth and property in Europe. If the Scientology sect is so successful and has garnered so much power in a mere seventy-year span, we can only imagine how much wealth and power the Christian Church accumulated over the many centuries, especially if we keep in mind that it was the only game in town. But during its history, as it went about massacring the opposition, the Christian Church made two inbred enemies that would eventually join forces and replace it as a financial and political power.

3-GREED AND SEXUALITY

When hominids became intelligent, their natural disposition towards envy, greed, and lust took on a new dimension. Natural selection being thrashed, they had more opportunities to satisfy their greed and seek pleasure. Naturally, it didn’t take them long to figure out that the most accessible and mind-boggling pleasures were those relating to fornication. Up till then, the right to pass on genes had been reserved to the alpha who had to constantly fight the other males for that privilege. However, the alpha never paid much attention to the female unless she was in heat at which time he was made aware of her by the characteristic odor she exuded, and this left the door wide open for the now intelligent lower order males.

In a blink of an eye, all lower order males became aspiring alphas, for they had the wherewithal to outwit the traditional alpha in their effort to get a female and experience the intense pleasures of copulation. Realizing that they didn’t have to wait for the entrancing odors given off by the female in heat in order to satisfy their urge, hominids became very focused on ‘diddling’, and it caused a lot of violence and cruelty within the group. Males were ready to move heaven and earth in order to experience the wondrous sensations fornication procured them. They fought, cheated, lied, and were even disposed to maim and kill in order to satisfy the urges that the female triggered in them.

Unfortunately for the females, using his intelligence instead of his nose in order to find a partner meant the male was inclined to discriminate. Up till then, all the females had had the services of the best male available, the alpha, but now, the lower ranking males found ways to party as well, and that changed the order of things. Not only did the males start forcing themselves upon the females, but they became selective. They figured out that if they wanted to increase their chances at having a healthy offspring, it was not only better to seek out a young female with generous hips, but if a female had big breasts, a well-proportioned body, and harmonious facial features, she was more apt to be nurturing, healthy, and resourceful. The breaking of the time barrier was not a good thing for the female hominids.

Moreover, the gene pool was deteriorating at a rapid rate. When alphas had been the only ones to pass on their genes, the specie had remained hardy, but now that every Tom, Dick, and Harry were accessing the females, the quality of the breeding stock was dropping dramatically. The equivalent of handsome, young, big-breasted females and handsome, tall, muscular males was diminishing, while that of individuals with inadequacies and shortcomings was increasing. And since hominids were now intelligent, they weren’t only conscious of where they stood on the social ladder, but they also knew if they’d been short-changed genetically. Naturally, they started compensating for their shortcomings. Lying, cheating, posturing, and bringing others down to their level as a way of making themselves feel adequate was the order of the day. They found it harder and harder to admit to being wrong or ignorant, and they were even prepared to commit cruel and dastardly deeds to prove they were as good as anybody else. Hominids became unnatural and fragile animals, and it engendered a lot of ugliness in them.

Though denaturalized, hominids were truly ingenious monkeys, and they knew that they couldn’t afford to alienate the group members. They were dependent on the group, and they knew it was in their best interest to have the others think highly of them. They were torn between their uncontrollable urge to satisfy their desires and their need to be liked. Regardless, they were becoming hard to handle, and physical force alone could no longer keep them in line and maintain cohesion within the group. Many individuals were aware of the advantages that altruism and cooperation procured, but there were too many who didn’t.

As it became obvious that hominids’ disposition with regards to greed and lust was making cohesion within the group impossible, the elders had to find ways to make everyday living bearable. Through stories and myths, they promoted the notion of omnipotent, omnipresent, omniscient beings who could inflict the worse punishments on those who didn’t behave according to the wishes of the group. At night, hominids were constantly reminded of these threats as they sat around the communal fire listening to the tall tales. They saw the evil red eyes piercing through the thick surrounding blanket of darkness, and as they listened to the howls of monsters that prowled the night, they trembled. The precursor of the bad mean god who could condemn one to the consuming fires of hell for eternity was being created. It was the birth of religion

2-TIME BARRIER

When scientists tell us that all life on Earth evolved from amino acids and the like, building blocks of life brewed in the primeval soup of life at the dawn of time, we sort of believe them, and when they tell us that Darwin’s theory of evolution is irrefutable, we sort of believe them, but when they tell us we’re monkeys, that’s when we get our backs up. If we’re intelligent, it’s because God made us that way, and that’s all there is to it.

Nonetheless, it gets harder and harder to refute the evidence that our ancestors had started prancing around on two feet as recently as 7 million years ago. As we became bipedal, and with the Sahara pump working away, we prospered in the African Rift Valleys where environmental conditions were ideal. We spent a lot of time in the water in order to protect ourselves from predators, and lost most of our hair. However, we found it impossible to compete with the big predators roaming the grasslands, and we certainly weren’t able to get at the carcasses until they had finished with them. To be sure, we were at the bottom of the totem pole when it came to living off the grasslands. Nonetheless, in time, we got our courage up and invested the killing fields in order to glean a few morsels from the leftovers, and we obviously found nothing but bones. Understandably, we didn’t know what to do with them, but since we were last on the scene and had all the time in the world to experiment, we eventually cracked one open. The precious bone marrow we found was avidly consumed, and when added to the rich and plentiful sea food already at our disposition in the shallow waters, we evolved in a spectacular way. By spending less time foraging for food, we had more time to ‘think’.

Since our brain was rapidly increasing in size along with the rest of our body, there was outward pressure on the cranium, and, in time, our facial features slowly morphed into what they are today. As the neocortex grew exponentially and grafted itself upon our reptilian and limbic brains, it caused an explosion of cerebral activity, and we became the thinking, talking, problem-solving emotional beings we are today.

As of that moment, we traveled in an existential world different from the other primates. But the line that forever set us apart from our wild cousins was drawn in the sand when we grasped the notion of death. After witnessing the death of a loved one, not grasping why our parent or companion was no longer communicating with us, or why his or her body was decomposing, we were probably overcome with deep emotional distress. Our feelings and our need to understand surely made something snap in our brain. That was the day we broke the time barrier, the day we realized that we too would die.

Breaking the time barrier meant we were now intelligent. We could use past experience to shape future events. As a simple ape frozen in the present, we had not known the anguish that the notion of death produces. Before, death had just been a momentary interruption in time, a sad happening devoid of meaning, and one that was not anticipated. But now, having broken the time barrier, not only did we know that we would die, but we also knew what could cause our death, and we trembled with fear. We saw dangers that threatened our life every which way we turned. We no longer trusted our instincts and we were insecure, and that made us very aggressive. An everyday occurrence became a deadly threat, and fear overcame us. The forest became a scary place and darkness was unbearable. We could no longer stand the aquatic environment either, for we imagined the most terrible creatures lurking beneath the surface.

We managed to survive by taking refuge in caves and grabbing unto the (coat) tails of any outstanding individual who seemed to have answers. Through trial and error we discovered how to make a fire and keep it going. Thereafter, we not only could warm ourselves, but we could keep the predators at bay. We learned to make weapons, and to hunt and live in groups, and our confidence grew. Ever so slowly, we were able to deal with the knowledge that there were deadly dangers and that our life would someday end.

1-HOMINIDS

 

Foreword

As we twitter with the whole world and fly to the far reaches of the globe on a whim, and as we enjoy clean water and unlimited electricity by flicking a button or turning a knob, we are empowered and feel invincible. Many of the values of those who not so long ago built their own homes, raised large families, grew their own food and made their own clothes, seem to be absent from our lives.

If we better understood the human monkey, and knew how the world of credit that empowered us was created, we would not only reconnect with those values, but also realize how lucky we are to be living in the best of all possible worlds. More importantly, we would find serenity in that knowledge, and be more inclined to do things that fulfill us instead of those that eat away at our insides.

This blog is meant to shed light on the evolution of humans and explain how the great world of credit was planned and created. The hope is that young people will read it and choose to live productive happy lives instead of overdosing on shit.

1-Glorious Revolution                                                                                                            

2-Glorious Man                                                                                                                      

3-Gold in the City                                                                                                              

4-Globalization                                                                                                                     

5-Sexual Revolution

 

1. Glorious Revolution (Hominids)                          

Around 65 million years ago, after the dinosaurs died off, we primates were the size of meerkats, and perhaps just as cute. In Africa, some 7 million years ago, the hominine-ape split occurred, bipedalism followed, and we started using tools. At the beginning of the Quaternary, around 2.5 million years ago, the ice age we’re presently in began, and as water levels dropped, we spread far and wide.

Glacials (maximum ice) and interglacials (minimum ice) occur in fairly regular cycles of around 20 thousand years. The timing is governed in large degree by predictable cyclic changes in Earth’s orbit, which affect the amount of sunlight reaching different parts of Earth’s surface. The three orbital variations are: changes in Earth’s orbit around the Sun (eccentricity), shifts in the tilt of Earth’s axis (obliquity), and the wobbling motion of Earth’s axis (precession).

Our evolution was subjected to these glacial and interglacial swings that some refer to as the Sahara Pump. When the Sahara was dry like it is today we migrated either south to the Sahel region, north to the Atlas Mountains, or east to the Nile and African Rift valleys, and when it was wet, some of us migrated back. Around 3 million years ago, our cortex started to grow exponentially, and it seems to have occurred while we were in the African Rift Valley. In order to escape the big predators, we spent a lot of time in the water. In time we shed our body hair, and because we had access to an overabundance of aquatic food, our brain size went from that of a chimpanzee to what it is today. We then developed language, created complex tools, controlled fire, built shelters, buried our dead, wore clothing, and built rafts to cross large bodies of water.

70 thousand years ago, the warming leg of the interglacial we’re now in was interrupted by the Toba volcanic eruption that caused a one thousand year winter during which most life on earth died out. In the following 30 thousand years, as the warming trend resumed, the hominids who had prospered in Asia slowly migrated westward to Europe. The Neanderthals who had migrated to Europe prior to the Toba eruption and had survived it were not doing very well. Their population had dwindled down to a few breeding couples. As the hominids from Asia arrived in Europe, they mingled with the Neanderthals that were left standing, but the new arrivals prospered in a spectacular way while the Neanderthals disappeared. 20 thousand years ago, as the warming cycle that we’re presently in continued, we started developing agriculture and leading sedentary lives. In time, we became what we are today.