32-WATERLOO 1815

 

When Napoleon returned from Russia, Nathan decided it was time to get rid of him. Nathan financed all the warring factions, not only Napoleon’s Army, but that of Austria, Prussia, Russia and England. Since the days of Aboukir, financing all sides continued to be a way of getting the desired results. Napoleon suffered defeat upon defeat, and after his encounters with Wellington in Spain, he was forced out of the Iberian Peninsula. He had by then lost most of his power. He signed the Treaty of Fontainebleau on April 11, 1814, abdicating in the process, and was sent to the Island of Elba.

Something very odd happened concerning Napoleon on February 26, 1815. In wanting to completely uproot Napoleon’s dynasty by destroying what was left of the Imperial Army, Nathan probably arranged to have him escape Elba and have him march on Paris. As the British guard ships looked the other way, Napoleon slipped away from Portoferraio on board the warship Inconstant with some 1,000 men, and landed between Cannes and Antibes on March 1. He knew that Royalist Provence would not be very friendly to him, and so, he avoided Provence by taking a route through the Alps.

Without firing a single shot, he marched unimpeded in a country in which he was reviled, and his troop numbers swelled until they became an army. On March 5, the Royalist 5th Infantry Regiment at Grenoble went over to Napoleon en masse. The next day they were joined by the 7th Infantry Regiment under its colonel, Charles de la Bédoyère, who would later be executed for treason by the Bourbons. An old anecdote illustrates Napoleon’s charisma. When Royalist troops deployed to stop the march of Napoleon’s force at Grenoble, Napoleon stepped out in front of them, ripped open his coat and said “If any of you will shoot his Emperor, here I am.” The men acclaimed him as they had when he had first gone to Italy.

Marshal Ney now a military commander under Louis XVIII was heard to say that Napoleon should be brought to Paris in an iron cage, but on March 14, that same Ney rejoined his old comrade in arms, Napoleon, with 6,000 men. Five days later, after proceeding through the countryside promising constitutional reform and an elected assembly to the acclaim of the crowds, Napoleon entered the capital from which Louis XVIII fled.

In the meantime, the Coalition countries met in Vienna and declared Napoleon an outlaw as they each pledged 150 000 men to defeat him. Unperturbed, Napoleon decided to take the offensive by going after the weakest army, that of Wellington, which had marched into Belgium. Because English troops were still committed to the War of 1812 in America, Wellington didn’t have what could be called an elite army.

The Duke of Wellington with 110,000 men, and Prussia’s Field Marshal Blucher with 120,000 men were the only two armies close enough to threaten France, and so Napoleon decided to strike before the Russians and the Austrians arrived. Moving with stunning speed, he invaded Belgium with 125,000 men in a bid to split Wellington and Blucher’s armies, and defeat each separately.

Marshal Grouchy went to meet Wellington’s army while Napoleon defeated the Prussians. Then, with the Prussians on the run, Napoleon decided to personally go after Wellington to the north. Marshal Grouchy was to make sure the defeated Prussians to the east would not come back and join up with Wellington. However, it took more time than expected for Napoleon to drive through Wellington’s defenses, and surprisingly, Marshal Grouchy was unable to hold back the weakened Prussians. When Blucher’s forces joined up with those of Wellington, Napoleon didn’t have a chance. That was the end of the Battle of Waterloo.

On the day the battle ended, on the other side of the Channel, Nathan was in London waiting for the official results of the battle with a formidable communications network in place. Even though Nathan was financing all the armies and knew that Napoleon didn’t have a chance, he wanted, nonetheless, to be absolutely sure before putting his devilish stock exchange swindle in motion. Nathan held a good portion of the 300 million pounds’ worth of Consols, the debt England had consolidated in funded government securities that were traded on the London Stock Exchange, but he wanted to own it all. As soon as the battle outcome was confirmed by his personal couriers who had waited for the carrier pigeons to arrive, and who had then rushed to the London Stock Exchange to inform the great man, Nathan started dumping all the Consols that he owned, making sure all the traders saw what he was doing. In no time at all, convinced that Nathan knew something they didn’t, the traders started dumping their Consols until the price of Consols dropped to ten percent of their value. When Nathan gave the signal, his aides bought back all the Consols as fast as they could. When the outcome of the battle was made public a short time later, and when everybody realized it had been Wellington, and not Napoleon, who had won, the price of Consols skyrocketed past their original high, and in a single day, Nathan had taken charge of the entire English debt and consolidated his control over the Bank of England.

Napoleon was exiled to St. Helens, and Louis XVIII was encouraged to try and establish a French constitutional monarchy, failed, and was subsequently removed from power. There would be two more tries at establishing an English style monarchy, but both failed, and around 1850, Lionel, Nathan’s son, decided that enough was enough. Paris, the center of power, would be transformed into the City of Lights, and France would return to being a republic as established under Napoleon, the only difference being that the Emperor would now be an elected President.

31-MOSCOW CAMPAIGN

 

Shortly after the War of 1812 began, Nathan, confident that the American politicians would renew his bank’s charter, turned his attention to Europe. He was anxious to send Napoleon to Russia. Like his father, he believed that more gold bullioto the Uralsn was needed if the number of central banks, and hence the amount of credit, was to grow. It was crucial to accumulate as much gold as possible, at least until the US paper dollar became as good as gold, but that would take a lot of gold and a lot of years. The problem in 1812 was that gold mining was still in its infancy, and that even exploiting alluvial gold deposits was a problem. However, it just so happened that the most advanced mining engineering school in the world was in Paris. L’École des Mines de Paris founded in 1783 had developed the latest techniques for extracting alluvial gold, and this gave Nathan the wherewithal to pursue his plan.

In 1803, alluvial gold had been discovered on the western slope of the Urals in Russia, and it was well known that the Tsar wanted to keep it a secret, for he didn’t want the serf population to start a gold rush. In 1810, Nathan who was setting the world price for gold bullion out of the City in London, was well aware of that situation. Therefore, he would entice Napoleon to go and force Tsar Alexander’s hand to open the country to private gold mining. Napoleon would take a corps of engineers with him, and once Alexander was forced into accepting, that elite corps would be sent to the Urals in order to launch and supervise mining operations. Of course, Napoleon was to keep all the proceeds from the sale of the mined gold. Nathan would open a Russian bank and buy all the gold as it was being produced while giving the Tsar his royalties. Letters of exchange in pounds would be sent to Napoleon in Paris, and the gold would find its way to Nathan’s vaults in the City. Napoleon and the Tsar would get the paper, and Nathan would get the gold.

Napoleon started the Russian campaign in June, 1812, and he was heading into a Russian winter which made absolutely no sense. After major losses, he entered Moscow. But since the retreating Russian Army had burned and stripped the city of supplies, it was a deadly place to be for a starving army. He could easily have gone on to Saint Petersburg to defeat Tsar Alexander and winter his troops in that city, but he chose to stay in Moscow for a whole five weeks instead. Napoleon was obviously waiting for an answer from the Tsar, to whom he had issued an ultimatum regarding opening the country to gold mining. After likely receiving assurances from Tsar Alexander that it would be done, Napoleon decided to spare Saint Petersburg, and took off as fast as he could for France, but not before dispatching to the Urals a contingent of 22 000 men headed by the engineers from l’Ecole des Mines de Paris. If Napoleon then took the same direct way back to France, knowing full well the countryside was totally devastated by the passing of his army on the way to Moscow, and that winter was around the corner, it was because he was in a hurry to reap the benefits of the campaign and was willing to gamble. Napoleon made it OK, but his army wasn’t so lucky. Winter set in early, and his army was completely annihilated.

Later that year, the Russian Senate issued an Act authorizing subjects and private companies to mine gold and silver ores providing they pay royalties to the Severnaya Kazna National State Bank. As expected, numerous private mining companies with Russian names started mining operations, and the country’s gold output was as much as 2 tons in that first year. Financing research and development in gold mining technology and buying the gold produced at the price set by Nathan in the City would become the modus operandi for all time.

Meanwhile, in Judengasse, Mayer’s health was failing. Upon receiving the bad news, Nathan duly rushed to Frankfurt, and was at his father’s bedside when he died on September 19, 1812. One can only wonder if the War in America declared on June 18, 1812, happening at the same time Napoleon was starting his Russian Campaign, didn’t adversely affect Mayer’s health. Did he think Nathan was in too much of a hurry? Did he think too many people were being killed needlessly in the name of gold? Or was 68 considered a ripe old age for the times? No matter, the greatest man who ever lived passed away in almost total anonymity in his German ghetto.

One thing is certain, Gretel must have reminded Nathan of the absolute necessity for discretion and anonymity so dear to his father. In London, Nathan had been doing exactly the opposite of what Mayer had always done, that is, keep a low profile while building the greatest financial dynasty of all time. Gretel couldn’t have been too happy with Nathan’s extravagant ways.

Nathan attended his father’s funeral with his son Lionel, who was four years old at the time. Gretel bonded instantly with her grandson, and when he took over the reins of power after his father’s death in 1836, Gretel was still living in Judengasse. She died much later, in 1849, and Lionel visited the old woman he loved as often as he could. Gretel had a great influence on him, for under his direction, the dynasty built by Mayer slowly went back to keeping a low profile, to the point where most people today wonder if it ever really existed. Nonetheless, to this day, Nathan’s bank in the City fixes the world price for gold out on a daily basis.

30-NAPOLEON, THE PUPPET

When Nathan moved to the City and took charge of the English monetary system, he was also taking charge of Bonaparte. One of the first things he did was direct Ouvrard to have Talleyrand convince Bonaparte to sell the French territory known as Louisiana to the Americans. It turned out to be quite a successful intervention in that the Treaty of Mortefontaine and the Treaty of San Ildefonso were both signed in 1800. Following the signing of the agreements, Bonaparte then sent 35,000 French troops to free the eastern part of Santa Domingo in order to give it back to the Spanish as promised. But Bonaparte had another idea in the back of his head, for he intended to double-cross whoever was financing the deal. Once in Hispaniola, instead of freeing the island, he would use it as a secure military base. Being close to the USA, he could then easily land his troops in New Orleans and occupy Louisiana instead of selling it, and there was nobody to stop him. By occupying the land west of the Mississippi, a land they already owned, the French would create a bigger and more important country than the 13 loose-knitted English speaking Colonies on the east coast.

Not surprisingly, Nathan got word of his intentions, but before he could send in the English Navy to put things right, Bonaparte’s army was wiped out by yellow fever, and the few remaining troops had to return to France. Bonaparte then had no choice but to sell Louisiana to the Americans as planned. But he hadn’t lost out completely, for he still pocketed the sale proceeds. It was a win-win situation for all parties. The Americans got a deal beyond their wildest dreams, and the 15 million dollars went directly to Bonaparte. It was enough to satisfy all of Bonaparte’s ambitions, and he following year, in 1804, he crowned himself Napoleon. The megalomaniac had become emperor, and it was henceforth up to Nathan to keep him in check.

After the signing of the Treaty of Mortefontaine with the USA, and the Treaty of San Ildefonso with Spain, the Quasi-War came to an end. The promised Louisiana Purchase that had been the bait was completed in 1803. But where did America get the money? At the time of the Louisiana Purchase, the thirteen Colonies had around seven million dollars in revenues, a 3.2 million dollar deficit, and didn’t yet collect taxes. Naturally, Congress asked the First Bank of the United States for a loan just like Mayer had expected. Lending to a government was the whole idea of banking.

When Congress offered to pay fifteen million dollars for the port of New Orleans, to everyone’s surprise, Napoleon sweetened the deal by throwing in at no extra charge all of the French possessions, including Rupert’s Land, a territory that in large part is Canada today. That was, indeed, a mind-boggling offer, and though Congress couldn’t believe its luck, it didn’t bother to question this ‘divine’ intervention. What is never mentioned is that in 1867 most of Rupert’s Land north of the 49th parallel was quietly united to Quebec, then known as Lower Canada. The straight line represented by the 49th parallel was seemingly drawn by the same ‘divine’ power that had devised the Manifest Destiny concept. America was on its way to becoming a coast to coast nation with Canada to the north, and Mexico to the south. However, the Mexican border would take a little longer to establish, for Spanish troops were still present on North American soil.

On the European front, Bonaparte crowned himself Emperor Napoleon at Notre-Dame Cathedral, in Paris, on December 2, 1804. Being in a position of strength, he rammed through the Civil Code on March 21, 1805. The Catholic Royalists opposed it violently because it meant they no longer had legal recourse with regards to their confiscated property. Napoleon had done exactly what was expected of him. Backed by Fouché’s dreaded state police, the Prefects had full powers in the departments, and the mayors answered directly to them. The Civil Code, a written law contrary to common law, was easy to interpret and easy to enforce. France thus became a centralist state that would endure time.

Nonetheless, in 1804, the French Navy was still a royalist fiefdom and still viable even though it had received a severe blow at Aboukir, in 1799. Therefore, in wanting to finish off the French Navy, Nathan, knowing full well that Napoleon wanted to invade England, told Ouvrard to promise the Emperor all the financing needed if he decided to do so. The plan would unfold, and when the French fleet would be at its most vulnerable, Nathan would leak the information to the English Admiralty who would be more than anxious to have Admiral Nelson join the fray.

Since Aboukir, the French Navy had been rehabilitated by Latouche-Tréville, but it was Admiral Villeneuve, the same one who had fled at Aboukir who was given command of the fleet. Nelson, who was chosen to command the English fleet and who had great respect for Admiral Latouche-Tréville who had once routed him, didn’t know that the French had replaced him with Villeneuve. So, when Villeneuve took off for the Caribbean, Nelson thought it was Latouche-Tréville, and that he was headed for Egypt. Thanks to favorable winds, Villeneuve kept well ahead of Nelson and Napoleon’s deception worked. Villeneuve went to the Caribbean, and Nelson went to Egypt. By the time Nelson realized his mistake, Villeneuve had had time to rendezvous with other French units in the Caribbean thirty-two days ahead of Nelson’s arrival. Villeneuve’s Navy was shipshape, superior in fire power, and could have easily defeated Nelson, but instead of engaging the English fleet, Villeneuve, who had fled before Nelson at Aboukir, fled yet again.

Napoleon then devised a clever plan. By having his navy invade a few islands, he made the English Admiralty think the French were taking over in the Caribbean. Then, as expected, most of the English Navy was dispatched to the Caribbean, thus freeing the French ports that had been under siege. Villeneuve seized the opportunity and took off as fast as he could for Europe, heading for Boulogne-Sur-Mer where Napoleon and his Imperial Army were waiting. All the French ships from the now liberated French ports were to join him there and everything was going marvellously well for Napoleon. Then, for some unknown reason, Villeneuve made the worst decision possible, one that was as catastrophic as the one taken by de Brueys at Aboukir. Instead of continuing on to Boulogne, he turned back and headed south for the Spanish port of Cadiz. No doubt, Villeneuve had been intercepted and ordered to do just that. Until then, the plan to invade England had been unfolding flawlessly. Understandably, Napoleon was furious at Villeneuve and immediately sent orders to have him removed from command. However, before receiving those orders, Villeneuve joined up with the Spanish fleet and went to attack Nelson’s fleet that had been spotted approaching from the west. Why on October 21, 1805, off Trafalgar, Villeneuve decided to attack Nelson in the worst possible weather conditions remains a mystery.

At the head of a disorganized Franco-Spanish fleet, practically in a dead calm, Villeneuve headed north to engage Nelson. When Nelson saw that Villeneuve’s ships were scattered six miles wide, he seized the opportunity and, contrary to tradition, he divided his fleet into two columns, one of which cut the Franco-Spanish fleet in two. That column went in at right angles, firing broadsides to port and starboard while remaining totally immune to enemy fire. The other column went northward and sank any enemy ship that decided to turn about and come to the rescue of the sister ships being attacked. The whole Franco-Spanish fleet was either sunk or captured. The score at Aboukir had been 13 to 0 in favor of Nelson, and now at Trafalgar it was 33 to 0 in his favor, notwithstanding the fact that he died after being shot by a French sailor from one of the damaged ships.

Nathan had to be very happy with the results, for that meant the Atlantic Ocean was now under the control of only one navy, the English Navy. The Atlantic community could now flourish. Napoleon had to abandon his plan to invade England, and was encouraged instead to go seek fame and fortune by attacking the Ancien Regime powers to the east. And since he kept all the spoils of victory, he was doubly motivated to go on the warpath. He defeated the Austrians in Italy and continued right into Austria where he defeated both Tsar Alexander I and Holy Roman Emperor Francis II at Austerlitz. It marked the beginning of the end for all Ancien Regime countries. A year later, the Holy Roman Empire was abolished and replaced by the Confederation of the Rhine, with Napoleon as ‘protector’.

Napoleon then took time out to tidy up his personal life. He wanted a male heir, and since Josephine couldn’t give him one, he divorced her. He married Marie-Louise of Austria in 1810, and the King of Rome was born in 1811. As far as Nathan was concerned, with the French Navy gone, with Napoleon having restructured France and with the Holy Roman Empire defeated, the Emperor and his Imperial Army were no longer needed. But there was one more thing Napoleon could do before he was given the coup de grace, he could go to Russia and force the Tsar to let private companies mine for gold in the Urals.

29-TAKEOVER IN THE CITY

Prior to sending Bonaparte to Egypt in 1799, Mayer, who now controlled the English monetary system, had wanted to end the Quasi-War by destroying the very royalist and redundant French Navy. Because the Goldsmid Bros., who represented Mayer’s interests in the City, didn’t have the drive and energy to get the job done, Mayer decided to send Nathan, his very capable 21 year-old son, to England and take charge of things. If Bonaparte was to be instrumental in stopping the Quasi-War, it had to be done without his knowledge, and since he was a dangerous megalomaniac, he had to be handled with care. Under his father’s direction, Nathan had told Ouvrard, to do whatever was necessary to get Talleyrand and Barras to send young Bonaparte on his Egyptian campaign, and we know the results of that campaign.

The Quasi-War had to do with the signing of Jay’s Treaty in 1793, a trade agreement that Mayer and Benjamin had deemed indispensable to the growth of the American economy. America and France had signed a Treaty of Alliance in 1778, and Jay’s Treaty was technically superseding that agreement. The French and many Americans had been incensed. It had been seen as a treacherous act by both the US Congress and the Directorate in France. Naturally, the French revolutionaries insisted on the return of the 500 tons of French gold given to America in 1778. However, Congress didn’t have any way of doing that, for as far as it was concerned, the gold was all spent.

In trying to avoid retaliation by the French, Mayer had asked Morris to get Congress to send an American delegation to Paris to negotiate a repayment scheme involving the purchase of Louisiana. Mayer was proposing a plan on how to broker a deal between America and France. If America bought Louisiana from France, the latter would receive a huge sum of money in compensation, and the Quasi-War would stop. But first, France had to reclaim the port of New Orleans that they had ceded to the Spanish when they left America after the Treaty of Paris, in 1763. Barras was to get Talleyrand to have the Spanish sign a treaty. He was to promise the Spanish that the half of San Domingo that belonged to them and was presently occupied by France would be returned to them in exchange for New Orleans. Once this was done, he would get the Americans to buy the whole of Louisiana from the French, and it would more than compensate for France’s generosity in 1778.

However, when the American delegation consisting of three diplomats arrived in Paris. They were treated very poorly by the Marquis of Talleyrand who had the gall to request personal compensation in order to intervene on their behalf. The American diplomats were so shocked by this turn of events that they returned immediately to America to report to Congress. Both parties in Congress spoke with one voice in condemning the French response to their genuine peace overture. Meanwhile, the French Navy started seizing and sinking American merchant ships in the Caribbean, while the fledgling US Navy retaliated as best it could. That’s where things stood in late 1797, and from Mayer’s point of view, the Quasi-War had to be stopped before it escalated.

Mayer didn’t want the English Navy getting involved in the Quasi-War. He controlled the American monetary system, that of England through the Goldsmid Bros., and indirectly that of France, and he didn’t want the three countries who were now under his financial control to be fighting each other. France was definitely not an enemy, but its very powerful royalist navy was a real nuisance, for it was hampering trade in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. America, England and France were unofficially trading partners, and one navy was all that was needed, the English Navy. If the Quasi-War was to be nipped in the bud, the French Royalist Navy had to be destroyed.

In France, Mayer had directed Ouvrard to finance both Barras and Talleyrand, his main advisor. Mayer was happy with the Barras-Talleyrand team, for such individuals were easily bought and disposed of. But it was time to start thinking about having a strong man to replace them. Bonaparte would take over from Barras, and his son Nathan, the pugnacious one, would take over from the Goldsmid Bros. in the City.

In order to ensure his anonymity, when Nathan first arrived in England, he set himself up as a textile merchant from Frankfurt. By 1810, he was the wealthiest banker in the City, and he was setting the price of gold for the whole world on a daily basis. Maybe the expression ‘rags to riches’ was inspired by Nathan’s apparent exploit. In fact, Mayer had wanted to make sure Nathan didn’t have any official ties with him or the First Bank of the United States. When Nathan opened his bank in the City, using his own name, all possible ties to his father, the First Bank of the United States, and the French real estate scam disappeared. Nobody would ever know where all that power, wealth and gold came from. Anonymity was the key to success.

Other than wanting to do a good job and making his father proud, Nathan had another pressing personal matter. He had been introduced to two families in London, and though it had been Moses Elias Montefiore’s family that had taken him in, Nathan had closer ties to the Levy-Barent Cohen family from when he was 18. In 1795, on a trip to America with his father and brothers, they had stopped over in London, and that’s when Nathan had met Hannah Cohen who was 12 at the time. When he arrived in London in 1798, he was quite anxious to see the girl he had dreamt about during all those years.

He lost no time in founding a family. In 1806 he married Hannah Cohen, in 1808 Lionel was born, and in 1809 he moved to St. Swithin’s Lane in New Court, where he proceeded to set up the official home of his banking dynasty. But first, Nathan had to take over from the Goldsmid Bros.

He was helped by destiny in that Benjamin Goldsmid committed suicide in 1808 just prior to Nathan’s moving to Swithin’s Lane. It was said that Benjamin had been depressed for some time. When his 19-year old son converted to Anglicanism, it had shaken him up, and when his wife and daughters followed suite, it appeared to do him in. At that time, he had expressed the thought that he was saddened to be the last Jew in his family, and that no doubt had led him to be further depressed, enough to take his life. One morning, he was found in his bedroom dangling at the end of his bathrobe chord.

Abraham was troubled by his brother’s suicide, and doubly so because he was now alone in facing his firm’s business obligations. He had bought £14,000,000 of Government Consols, and in order to do so he had contracted a sizeable loan with the East India Company in Amsterdam. In 1810, for reasons unknown to the public, the East India Company called in Abraham’s loan. That of course forced him to sell the Consols at a loss, thus making him suffer a huge loss that resulted in the insolvency of the firm. Abraham honorably used the whole of his personal assets to pay back what he owed, and that left him penniless. He committed suicide in 1810. A handgun was found near his body lying in a wooded area not far from his home.

Nathan was a very able and energetic young man. The French Navy was given a serious blow at Aboukir in 1799, and was completely wiped out at Trafalgar in 1805. He ended the Quasi-War by arranging the Louisiana Purchase and making funds available to the US Congress regarding the actual purchase. The proceeds of that sale were given to Bonaparte who immediately crowned himself Emperor Napoleon. Napoleon then turned France into an orderly centralist state before taking off and defeating the Holy Roman Empire at the Battle of Austerlitz. By 1810, Napoleon had served his purpose, and it was time to get rid of him. But Nathan thought he could use him one last time by sending him to Russia in order to force the Tsar to open the country to gold mining companies. There would always be time to get rid of Napoleon.

26-TERROR

 

In the latter part of 1792, the Illuminati set up a shadow government, the Paris Commune, in the Paris City Hall. Sitting as Montagnards in the Legislative Assembly, their representatives voted to abolish the Assembly and replaced it with a new political body, the Convention. That’s when the September Massacres were perpetrated. For a whole week, teams of workers went about butchering a lot of innocent people. They would leave Paris City Hall in the morning, with their aprons and hatchets, and go and butcher inmates and patients in prisons and hospitals. They would return at night with bloodied axes and sullied aprons to collect their day’s pay. It transfixed the French and all of Europe with fear. And even worse, as the September Massacres were being carried out, the guillotine started beheading innocent people by the thousands. The Illuminati were not only bringing down the Ancien Regime, the political system, they were also venting their deep festering hatred. Unfortunately, it was the citizens who were taking the brunt of the violence.

Needless to say, as Terror spread to the other French cities, and especially after the royal family was guillotined, the Roman Catholic Empire put all its might behind the Federalists in order to protect the catholic populations that were resisting in the Vendean region to the west and most of the major French cities.

In retaliation, the revolutionary government gave orders to apply scorched earth tactics to the Vendean region, and a genocide was carried out. Terror was also being carried out in other cities, especially in the port of Toulon to the south. The Federalists had taken Toulon with the help of the French navy whose many Royalist commanders espoused their cause. However, once in command of the port, faced with a superior advancing Convention army who had just defeated their counterparts in Nimes, Avignon and Marseille to the west, the Federalists decided to surrender their city to the English whose navy had been blockading the port. With thousands of English soldiers occupying the port, the Convention forces would easily be kept at bay.

Mayer was appalled by the Vendean genocide where thousands of Catholic men, women and children were in the process of being exterminated. When he heard what was happening in Toulon, he was fully aware of the magnitude of the Terror. The year before, one Paul Barras, an aristocrat, had been elected to the Convention Assembly as a Montagnard representing the Var region. He was an unscrupulous, penniless and debauched individual from a well-to-do and respected family. He was initiated as a Freemason and joined the Jacobin Club like all Illuminati recruits of note. Since he represented the Var and had a military background, he was sent as emissary to the Italian Army Command which had been sent to liberate Toulon. When he got there, the military command was in disarray, and nothing was being done. That’s when a young artillery lieutenant called Bonaparte suggested to the generals that it would be best to shell the port before attempting a frontal attack. The generals paid no attention to him, but Barras did. Since Barras had the authority, he told the generals to give the young man permission to get his canons. In quick order, Bonaparte proceeded to gather all the artillery he could from Marseille and other surrounding cities as well as the Italian Army Command to which he belonged. From the heights of Toulon, Bonaparte had a great advantage over the English forces, and after relentless shelling, the English were forced to flee taking some Federalists with them. But when told what happened to those Federalists who were left behind, Mayer was aghast. Barras and Freron had led their troops into the city and had butchered the Federalists by the thousands. Notably, a wounded Bonaparte hadn’t participated in the massacre, had been made General, and he owed it all to Barras.

While the revolution was being carried out, Ouvrard had kept busy. He had reported to Mayer that the perfectly crafted assignats printed by François in Lyon were circulating without a hitch. In the last three years, his agents working out of the newly-established Masonic Lodges throughout France had purchased tens of thousands of the most prestigious French properties. All the properties had been bought in the name of fictitious individuals, and there was absolutely no trace leading to Ouvrard or Mayer.

The assignats had lost half their value since the first issue in late 1789. Since the Convention insisted on maintaining the original value of the assignats, those with hard currency and bullion hidden away under mattresses, or floor boards, no longer wanted to buy up the assignats. They saw the end of the Terror, the return of law and order and real currency, and they wanted to get their hands on tangible assets. They wanted to buy real estate without having to buy assignats, and getting it at reduced prices was definitely an added incentive. On his own initiative, Ouvrard had started selling off the unwanted secondary assets of the great estates he had purchased. The sale of the detached lands and buildings, as well as the furnishings and livestock, had almost doubled their capital, and the offerings had pacified the local notables and farmers who didn’t have enough money to bid at auction and felt the revolution had cheated them. By encouraging them to pool what metal money they had, Ouvrard had made it possible for them to buy a lot of good property and chattels at an affordable price.

Ouvrard told Mayer that he sometimes hesitated selling off the properties because he didn’t know what prices to set. So far, he was using the original Convention evaluations set in livres, but he wanted to confirm with Mayer what the gold equivalence was. Although there was hardly any metal money in circulation, fortunes in silver and gold were waiting to be invested.

Mayer had obviously thought it all out. The French livre would remain fixed to the English pound. 4 livres worth 1 oz of gold or 16 ozs of silver. With regards to the property values, the Convention evaluations would do just fine. Mayer told Ouvrard he was primarily interested in receiving gold as payment without telling him why. He explained simply it was because of the sixteen to one weight advantage. The accumulated silver was to be used to cover Ouvrard’s commission along with that of his agents. Whatever silver remained was to be converted into gold and sent on by land first to David in Amsterdam, and then by boat to Montefiore in London. Montefiore would see that it was deposited in the Goldsmid Bros. vaults. Mayer estimated that at the present rate some five thousand tons of gold would be deposited in the City before it was all over.

The agents in France were extremely motivated, for they were becoming rich beyond their wildest dreams, commissions on billions of pounds were being paid out in silver. However, Mayer had wanted to thank them in a special way. He told Ouvrard that when the bulk of the Émigré real estate was bought up, he and the agents would be free to use their commissions to bid on any property they wanted. When the auctions stopped, he was to tell François to stop printing assignats. Mayer would acquaint François with that decision from his end.

Soon, Mayer would need to have one of his sons take charge of family affairs in the City. Amschel, eldest son and future head of the family, would remain in charge in Frankfurt. Nathan, the pugnacious one, would be sent to the City in London when he reached 21, in five years’ time. Nathan had met a lot of people when they had stopped in London on their way to America in 1790, and particularly remembered one Levy Barent-Cohen, a gruff older gent who had a delightful daughter. Nathan was looking forward to going to London for several reasons.

25-REAL ESTATE SCAM

Part III                              Glorious City

                          How gold was accumulated in the City

25-Real estate scam

26-Terror

27-Recruiting Bonaparte

28-Takeover in the City

29-Holy Roman Empire

30-Moscow Campaign

31-Waterloo

 

In early 1790, Mayer left for America with his three teenage sons, Amschel, Salomon and Nathan. The last time he had travelled to the new world was in 1785 when he went to arrange for the transfer of power following Haym’s death. On this present trip, he wanted the boys to meet Ephraim Hart, the political leaders, and the people who helped create the Bank of North America. He also wanted to expose them to life in America. He especially wanted the boys to meet Benjamin Franklin before it was too late. Unfortunately, Benjamin was old and in poor health, and they arrived too late.

But business carried on. Mayer met with Moses Hayes in Boston, Ephraim Hart in New York and the Gratz Brothers in Philadelphia. Robert Morris who had done such a superb job as head of the Bank of North America and Superintendent of Finance had passed on the torch to his young protégé, Alexander Hamilton, who was now Secretary of the Treasury. Alexander was a true prodigy and was handling the young nation’s finances brilliantly. When Mayer met with Robert Morris, he told him how satisfied he was with their work, and that he and Alexander were now officially part of his extended family. They were hereafter free to use their own good judgment in the running of the country’s finance. Of course, Robert was to consult with Alexander, Moses, Ephraim and the Gratz Brothers if urgent matters came up, or directly with Mayer in Frankfurt if he deemed it necessary.

He then met with Washington in his magnificent renovated Mount Vernon estate and congratulated him on his election victory. He had assured him that since trade and commerce was developing at breakneck speed, he and his political supporters would continue receiving unlimited funding in order to carry out their mandates as they saw fit.

Next, he met with Alexander Hamilton and congratulated him on getting George Washington elected. He also told him how impressed he was with the work he and Robert Morris were doing. He then brought up the subject of the Bank of North America charter that was expiring in 1791. Hamilton was way ahead of him on that one, for a first draft of the 1st Bank of the United States of America charter that was to run for another twenty years was already being circulated and was meeting with very little opposition. Mayer was indeed impressed by this young man.

The states were developing by leaps and bounds, Mayer’s people were rich and getting richer, and his bank’s charter was about to be renewed for another twenty years. There was absolutely nothing for Mayer to worry about. He always surrounded himself with Ashkenazi if he could, for they were his people, and he could trust them with his life. If he recruited people like Morris and Hamilton it was because of their talent and because, as goys, they were indispensable in representing his interests within the sphere of government. In all cases, his main objective was to command genuine loyalty. He made sure his collaborators always had enough money to reach any goal or satisfy any whim without their having to ask Mayer. People don’t necessarily like being on a string, but severing a link to such bounty is unthinkable, especially when it’s so easy to forget the string exists. One thing was certain, America and his bank could look forward to twenty years of peace and prosperity.

The only matters that needed immediate attention were getting permanent residences for the President and Congress. Mayer’s associates all agreed that having the federal capital at the head of the Potomac River was the best choice. The area would be slightly in the southern portion of the new nation, and strategically, it was well-protected. They all agreed that the President and his staff should have a residence separate from that of the people’s representatives. Although the constitution, drafted by Hamilton, Madison, and Jefferson who had just come back from Paris, had been signed the year before, some states were still holding back. However, Alexander was certain the Compromise of 1790, that he had drafted according to Mayer’s wishes, would be accepted and would lead the way in the creation of a strong federal state.

Before setting sail for the trip home, Mayer and the boys decided it would be a good idea to go by way of Paris, in order to see what was happening in France. Mayer was also anxious to know how much gold bullion his real estate operations were generating. When they arrived in Amsterdam, they took a Thurn and Taxis mail coach in order to avoid problems with the French authorities. Mayer had written ahead to David Schiff, Moses Montefiore, Francis Baring and Gabriel Julien Ouvrard, and the Goldsmid Bros. in order to convene them to a meeting in Paris. His associates were perceptive men who knew London, Amsterdam and Paris well, men who kept abreast with what was happening in Europe generally, and France in particular.

The meeting took place in Gabriel’s mansion in Paris. Since it wasn’t a good idea to show off one’s wealth in France at that time, they kept the meeting low key which suited Mayer very well. Mayer and the boys listened with the greatest attention as they were briefed on the state of the real estate sales and on the latest developments of the ongoing revolution.

The counterfeit assignats printed by Johannot went undetected, and all of Ouvrard’s agents, Huguenots who were now working out of the lodges of the Grand Orient of France, were buying the prodigious properties as they were put on the auction block throughout France. Ouvrard had already started selling the properties for metal currency, mainly gold. As the sales were completed, Baring conveyed the gold to London via Rotterdam where it was deposited in the Goldsmid vaults in the City. Schiff in Rotterdam and Montefiore in London were to make sure everything went smoothly. So far, there had been no hitches and the elite group assembled in Paris didn’t foresee any. Mayer’s boys were in admiration of their father who had set up such a marvelous scam where no one was harmed that hadn’t already been harmed.

Mayer and the three boys left Paris in good spirits, except for Nathan who was complaining about not being allowed to go and witness the demolition of the Bastille prison. In order to humor Nathan, Mayer talked about plans for the family as it pertained to London. Soon, he would need to have one of his sons take charge of family affairs in the City. It was a foregone conclusion that Amschel, the eldest son, would be the future head of the family and remain in charge in Frankfurt. Mayer planned to send Salomon to Vienna to supervise the massive banking operations in the loosely united Holy German Empire. As for London, since Nathan spoke English best, he would be sent to the City when he reached 21.

When Mayer got back to Frankfurt, the first thing he did was sit down with his only confidante, his wife Gretel, and acquainted her with the latest developments in America and France. All was going as planned in America, and there wasn’t much to add. Benjamin’s passing had been deeply felt by Mayer, but the 1st Bank of the USA was about to receive a 20-year charter, and the buildings housing the President and Congress would be built at the head of the Potomac River to the south. With Morris and Hamilton at the helm, things could not have been better.

In France, however, it was another matter. The year before, the Illuminati had financed a meeting of provincial representatives who had been either named or elected and asked to draw up lists of grievances in view of bringing them to the King’s attention. When they congregated in Versailles, the clergy and nobility refused to sit in the same room with them, and the King cancelled the meeting. Mirabeau, the undeclared leader, then convinced the people’s representatives to hold a meeting on their own. Naturally, when they declared their body to be the official government of France, the King sent in the National Guard to disperse them. Mirabeau seized the moment, stood up to the sergeants, and the assembly refused to disband.

While this was going on, programmed famines were creating havoc in all the major French cities. In Paris, the Illuminati were promoting meetings where unsavory characters met at the Palais Royal, the Paris residence of the King’s brother, the Grand Master of the Orient of France. The courtyard had become a meeting place for all the hotheads and lowlifes who were attracted by the firebrand speeches. Last July, a throng had assembled in the courtyard, and fired up by the speeches, went and stormed the Bastille, the much hated royal prison. The prison governor was decapitated and his head was paraded through the streets of Paris.

A few weeks later a procession of very odd masculine ladies accompanied by Lafayette’s National Guard went to fetch the royal family in Versailles. Versailles had been financed and built in anticipation of this very moment, a time when the absentee King would be forced to answer to his people in Paris. Without any opposition, the royals were brought back to Paris where they were put under house arrest in the Tuileries. The National Constituent Assembly thought it best to follow the King to the Tuileries in order to remain at the center of power. The National Assembly then had to find a source of revenue. So, as expected, they voted to confiscate church property and proceeded to print Assignats, certificates sold for hard currency and that were to be used to buy confiscated Church property at the different auctions.

Gretel already knew that Mayer was involved in buying the properties with French counterfeit money, and reselling them to the French for gold. Nevertheless, Mayer reiterated that what he was doing was not for personal gain, but rather to accumulate gold. France was being flooded with counterfeit bills, and there was a lot of confusion, but the high quality bills used by Mayer’s agents were going undetected. The agents working for Ouvrard, and consequently for Mayer, had already bought a considerable number of prestigious properties and were selling them at a reduced price as long as gold was used for the transaction. At auction, the French, who were outbid by Mayer’s agents who had unlimited amounts of bills, were quite willing to buy the properties at a lower price from those same agents. Ouvrard then sent the gold bullion to the Goldsmid Bros. in the City, in London. Francis Baring, the Chairman of the East India Company in Amsterdam, was charged with the responsibility of conveying the bullion to the Goldsmids. Necessarily, the Goldmids were becoming the biggest shareholders in the Bank of England, and David in Amsterdam and Montefiore in London were making sure the gold transfers were going well. Everybody earned a generous commission and was becoming very rich. As the bullion entered the Goldsmid vaults, it was stockpiled and remained so. The City was a state within a state and the gold was well protected.

Nobody knew what Mayer was really worth, most didn’t even know he existed. Some people knew he was rich, but they also knew he lived in a ghetto, and they didn’t know what to make of it. Mayer already controlled the monetary system of the United States of America, which meant he had the final say in what was to be financed and what direction that country would take. In time, the American politicians would question the bank’s origins and wonder who the owners were, but Mayer would maintain his anonymity. People didn’t know that what was best for the bankers was also what was best for the people, and they tended to envy and even revile the bankers who as far as they were concerned enriched themselves at their expense. Since there was not much they could do if they didn’t know where to point the finger, that’s the way it would continue to be. As long as everybody was kept guessing concerning the working of the monetary system, and as long as Mayer did what was best for the country, the people would eventually and grudgingly accept the fact that it was the only way democracy could work without ever understanding what democracy was.

24-MANIFEST DESTINY

 

Mayer went to meet with Benjamin who had just arrived from France. Although Mayer was much younger than this great man, they shared the same ideals for America, and having gone through so much, and after being so successful, they greeted each other as old friends. They had enjoyed the time they had spent together before Benjamin left for France, and again when they had met in Paris. They couldn’t wait to have another tête-à-tête which they arranged to have the day after the official welcoming festivities for Benjamin.

Benjamin’s German hadn’t improved much, but Mayer had since picked up an English word here and there, and they struggled along in a pot-pourri of German and English. They didn’t want anyone to be privy to their conversation, and therefore, they decided they would make do without an interpreter.

Mayer started by congratulating Benjamin on his great diplomatic achievement. He had singlehandedly seduced the whole of France thanks to his fake frontiersman style and his many scientific breakthroughs that had been published prior to his arrival. After the battles of Trenton and Saratoga, he had succeeded in getting the Treaty of Alliance signed. Mayer also wanted to congratulate Benjamin on his masterful use of Morris Notes sent to him in Paris in order to pay Abraham Lazard who was supplying arms to Schiff in Rotterdam. Thanks to him, David had channeled vast quantities of French arms to the Colonies. In other words, Mayer wanted to let him know that without him, the victory at Yorktown, the founding of the Bank of North America and the about-to-be-signed Constitution would have been impossible.

Benjamin was well aware of his accomplishments in his desire to achieve independence for his country, but he wondered about the future of the Bank of North America. He knew that Robert Morris, according to Mayer’s wishes, had used the French gold that had been in Haym’s possession to capitalize that bank, and he wanted to know how it had fared since it received a charter in 1781.

Mayer felt the need to justify the fact that he was now in control of America’s monetary system. He started by saying that the Bank of North America was doing very well, and through Morris, his newly chosen front man, Mayer did indeed control America’s monetary system. He admitted it was making him very rich and powerful, but past a certain point, being rich was of no consequence. The only thing that mattered was buying and accumulating more gold bullion in order to solidify the burgeoning economy. The accumulation of gold was a self-propelling concept. It allowed the central bank to create more credit, make greater profits with which to buy more gold. There were, however, two main problems. Getting more gold out of the ground was limited by current technology, and financial anonymity had to be guaranteed at all cost.

He wanted to assure Benjamin that wealth didn’t impact his private life, and never would. He was interested in what money couldn’t buy. He lived in a ghetto in Frankfurt with his people, a crammed space that he was proud to call home, and he had the most wonderful wife who had given him six adorable and healthy children, and that was what made him happy. He had friends he could trust with his life and that of his family, and with Benjamin by his side, he was building a grand and beautiful new country. He couldn’t dream of being happier and having a more fulfilled life.

If properly used, credit made everybody richer, especially ordinary citizens. That was the beauty of an independent monetary system. Mayer intended to do everything in his power to create more central banks, a task his sons would no doubt pursue. When lending to a government the only objective was that of achieving the greatest prosperity for all. The supplier of credit and the spender couldn’t be one and the same. Congressmen were elected for a short period of time, and their thinking centered on their personal concerns, and in wanting to get re-elected and enjoy the good life, their greed and ambition only stifled national economic growth. Supplying credit made the banker rich, but in order for that to happen, credit had to stimulate growth in the whole system, and that’s why a private banker such as himself did everything in his power to keep the system private and growing. It was a win-win concept for humanity, but only if the banker and the spender remained separate and distinct.

Benjamin, who had spent a lifetime trying to establish a monetary system, knew that Mayer was right. Mayer repeated what they had already discussed in the past. The private banker as sole lender controlled the supply of credit by continually adjusting the rate of interest, and by controlling the supply of credit, he could then control prices through the stock exchange. What mattered most was to keep the economy stable while letting it grow at a measured pace. Benjamin was indeed impressed by this younger man who exuded so much strength, knowledge and assurance.

The subject then turned to France. Benjamin had much to say, and Mayer had much to learn. Benjamin felt that France was a kettle ready to boil over. The Masonic Lodges were growing like wild fire throughout France, and since Wilhelmsbad, the orientation of the lodges had changed in order to cater to lay people. One no longer had to swear on the Catholic bible in order to become a Mason. The change had opened the door to the Huguenots who were infiltrating France from England, Holland and Germany. Somebody was pushing for change in France, and that initiative seemed to be originating in London. Benjamin was quite sure the English bankers were out to destroy France from the inside. People like Mirabeau and many others had been talking about a Constitutional Monarchy like that of England for some time.

It seemed that Versailles was creating a problem. The King was completely isolated and surrounded by his aristocratic cronies in a lush setting while a starving Paris grumbled. Benjamin had personally felt this unrest in Paris in spite of the fact that Versailles was now occupied by Louis XVI and his young wife, a rather congenial couple.

Mayer was overwhelmed by this man’s observations, and he listened to his every word. But now he had to give Benjamin some bad news. When the Peace Treaty of Paris was signed in 1783, the British armed forces had left North America, the lands east of the Mississippi River were ceded to the Americans, and France was officially made America’s major trading partner. Now, two years later, America’s economy was bursting at the steams and needed a stronger trading partner. Because of turmoil in France, Mayer thought that a formal trade agreement with England had to supersede the Treaty of Alliance that Benjamin had ratified in Paris in 1778. He knew that the French and the American citizenry would be very upset with what they would deem treachery, which it was in fact, and Mayer wondered if Benjamin could accept to work with him in getting such a trade agreement signed. Mayer saw it as an urgent matter, and a logical thing to do. America was mainly white, English-speaking and Protestant just like England, and the two countries had historical economic and cultural ties.

Benjamin was truly taken aback by this suggestion and remained quiet for the longest time. His natural inclination was to feel mistrust for a man who could suggest such betrayal. But because he knew Mayer was right in that they had no control over what was happening in France, and because he truly trusted this unusual man, he dismissed his gut reaction. He knew that Mayer felt the same way he did about France, and that he felt very bad about not honoring the intent of the Treaty of Alliance, even though it hadn’t been an official trade agreement. Reluctantly, he had to agree with Mayer. A trade agreement with England was necessary. Mayer, and later his dynasty, would see to it that France receive top consideration in economic and cultural development, no matter what. For now, Mayer would personally see to it that France got all the help it needed in order for it to become a democracy.

Mayer told Benjamin that if Congress was to be receptive to their ideas, his help was sorely needed. Although he was thinking of retirement, he urged him to accept the seat he was being offered in the Senate. With him sitting in the Senate, and Alexander Hamilton controlling finances under Morris’ leadership, they could easily steer the ship. It was the only way to successfully address the pressing matters facing the 13 Colonies. It was urgent to unite the 13 Colonies by getting a constitution signed, a President elected, and permanent residences built for both the President and Congress.

While Benjamin was away in France, Morris had taken Alexander Hamilton, under his wing. He had him study law before getting him elected as a representative of New York. Alexander turned out to be a prominent orator in the NY Congress that was presently sitting, and had written impressive papers that had led to the ratification of the Declaration of Independence by New York. This same young man was now in the process of drafting the constitution with Madison, and he had Morris’ complete backing.

As for the ceded lands, since the individual Colonies had claims on them, Mayer had asked Robert Morris to forgive their war debts on condition that they sign over their rights to Congress, and it seemed to be working. There wasn’t much doubt that all would accept, and in so doing, they would be accepting Congress as the Federal authority. That in turn would open the door to their accepting a residence for both the President and Congress up the Potomac River somewhere. Benjamin admired a man who could plan such an innocent yet far-reaching subterfuge, and he told Mayer so.

Once the Constitution was ratified and George Washington was elected President, and the Colonies’ war debts were forgiven in exchange for an agreement on a permanent residence for the President and Congress, there were long range plans that would need to be addressed. In the Paris Treaty of 1763, the French had repatriated its administration and its military leaving Canada to the English. With the Paris Treaty of 1783, the English had done likewise with regards to the USA. It was therefore time to start thinking of the territorial expansion of the USA. France was in great need of money, and a way to repay France for 1778 was to offer it a sizable sum of money for its land possessions that stretched from New Orleans to Hudson Bay and to the west right up to and including the prairies. The payment would be a way to avoid any future conflict while making a gesture of reconciliation. Mayer would find a way to arrange and finance such a sale, a purchase that Congress would be only too happy to agree to. The huge buffer zone to the north would become a country north of the 49th parallel, and that would let the USA free to expand westward along that parallel. In time, once the Americans were well established east of the Mississippi and had a stable government, the Spanish problem to the south could be addressed. The Spanish administration along with its army would be forced to go home just like the French and the English had been. Once the Rio Grande was established as the country’s southern border, the new states would be added one by one, and the USA would become a coast-to-coast nation, from Canada to Mexico. Unlike Europe, it would be a united country in which one language, one race and one religion dominated. It was meant to become the greatest nation on earth, and they both agreed.