33-NATHAN IN THE CITY

When he arrived in England in 1798, other than wanting to do a good job and making his father proud, Nathan had a pressing personal matter. In 1795, on a trip to America with his father and brothers, they had stopped over in London, and he had been introduced to two families. Though Moses Elias Montefiore’s family was the one meant to welcome him when he moved to England, Nathan developed closer ties to the Levy-Barent Cohen family, for ever since 1795 when Nathan met Hannah Cohen, who was 12 at the time, that adorable little girl had been constantly on his mind.

Nathan started off by going undercover to Manchester. He had left the Judengasse ghetto as a penniless young man in 1798, and in the space of 8 years, he supposedly became the wealthiest man in the world. After achieving this feat dealing in the cloth business, he went to London. Other than wanting to see Hannah Cohen in London, being the man that he was, he must have been also champing at the bit to take over from the Goldsmids in the City. In 1806, he married Hannah Cohen, in 1808 Lionel was born, and in 1809 he moved to St. Swithin’s Lane in New Court. In 1810, after replacing the Goldsmid Brothers, he proceeded to create a bank in his own name, N M Rothschild & Sons, and overnight, he was recognized as the most powerful banker in the City, and hence, the world.

However, in taking over from the Goldsmid Bros., he had been helped by destiny. Benjamin Goldsmid committed suicide in 1808 just prior to Nathan’s moving to Swithin’s Lane. It was said that Benjamin had been depressed for some time. When his 19-year old son converted to Anglicanism, it had shaken him up, and when his wife and daughters followed suite, it appeared to do him in. At that time, he had expressed the thought that he was saddened by the thought of being the last Jew in his family, and no doubt, that had led him to be further depressed, enough to take his life. One morning, he was found in his bedroom dangling at the end of his bathrobe chord.

Abraham was troubled by his brother’s suicide, and doubly so because he was now alone in facing his firm’s business obligations. The brothers had bought £14,000,000 of Government Consoles, and in order to do so they had contracted a sizeable loan with the East India Company in Amsterdam. In 1810, for reasons unknown, the East India Company called in Abraham’s loan. That of course forced him to sell the Consoles at below market, thus making him suffer a huge loss that resulted in the insolvency of the firm. Abraham, a respected and honorable business man, used the whole of his personal assets to pay back what he owed, and that left him penniless. He committed suicide in 1810. A handgun was found near his body lying in a wooded area not far from his home.

In that same year, at age 33, Nathan opened his bank in the City. Miraculously, he was instantly recognized as the most powerful banker in the City. He probably had taken possession of his father’s gold in the Goldsmids coffers, almost half the gold ever produced in the world, some 5 thousand tons. Consequently, his bank immediately started fixing the daily price of gold for the whole world, and continues to do so to this day. If Nathan opened the bank in his own name it was because Mayer wanted to make sure Nathan’s bank didn’t have any official ties with himself. In doing so, all possible ties to a father who lived in a ghetto, to his bank, the First Bank of the United States, and to the gold accumulated during the French real estate scam, vanished. Nobody would ever know where all that power and gold enjoyed by Nathan came from. Anonymity was the key to success.

1810 was also a time to decide Napoleon’s fate. That year, Napoleon was tidying up his personal life. He had wanted a male heir, and since Josephine couldn’t give him one, he divorced her very solemnly and publicly. He married Marie-Louise of Austria later that year, and his son, the King of Rome, was born in 1811. Nathan thought that Napoleon had served his purpose. After shoring up Barras who put an end to the Terror, after serving as a catalyst for the demise of the French Navy, after politically transforming France into the centralist state that it is to this day, and after dismantling the Holy Roman Empire on both sides of the Rhine, Emperor Napoleon and his Imperial Army were no longer needed. However, there was one more thing Napoleon could do before he was given the coup de grace, he could go to Russia and force the Tsar to let private companies mine for gold in the Urals.

 

32-QUASI-WAR & TRAFALGAR

The Quasi-War was a result of the signing of Jay’s Treaty in 1793, a trade agreement that Mayer and Benjamin had deemed indispensable to the growth of the American economy. America and France had signed the Treaty of Alliance in 1778, and Jay’s Treaty was putting an end to that agreement. The French and many Americans were incensed, for it was seen as a treacherous act by both the US Congress and the Directorate in France. Naturally, the French revolutionaries retaliated by insisting on the return of the 500 tons of gold given to America in 1778.

Since Congress was in no position to do that, the French revolutionary government’s navy started sinking American merchant ships. If Mayer was to defuse the situation before it got out of hand, he needed to have a strong presence in the City, and in 1798, he sent his 21-year-old son Nathan to England. Mayer then asked Robert Morris to get the American Congress to send diplomats to France and offer to compensate France by having the USA buy the French territory west of the Mississippi. Mayer’s bank would do the financing and pay handsomely. As for Nathan, once the Louisiana was completed, he was to devise a way to get rid of the very royalist and redundant French Navy.

When Robert Morris suggested that Congress send an American delegation to Paris and offer to buy New Orleans for 15 million dollars, he was sure it would be accepted, for that was also of opening the Mississippi to Atlantic trade. As for Bonaparte, he was sure to accept, for he would have enough money to crown himself emperor. But before the sale could be completed and the Quasi-War stopped, France had to reclaim the port of New Orleans that they had ceded to the Spanish when they left America after the Treaty of Paris, in 1763. Talleyrand was to get the Spanish to sign a treaty by promising them the return of half of San Domingo, that was presently occupied by France, in exchange for New Orleans.

However, this ambitious project was to be delayed. When the American delegation, consisting of three diplomats, arrived in Paris, they were treated very poorly by the Marquis of Talleyrand who had the gall to request personal compensation in order to intervene on their behalf. The American diplomats were so shocked by this turn of events that they returned immediately to America to report to Congress. Both parties in Congress spoke with one voice in condemning the French response to their genuine peace overture. So, the Quasi-War continued, and the French Navy continued seizing and sinking American merchant ships in the Caribbean.

Mayer especially didn’t want the Quasi-War to continue. He controlled the American monetary system, that of England, and indirectly that of France, and he didn’t want the three countries who were now under his financial control to be fighting each other. France, America and England were meant to become trading partners, and one navy was all that was needed, the English Navy. For now, it was urgent to finalize the Louisiana Purchase in order to compensate France.

After the signing of the Treaty of Mortefontaine with the USA and the Treaty of San Ildefonso with Spain in 1800, the Quasi-War came to an end. The promised Louisiana Purchase that had been the bait was completed in 1803, thanks to Mayer’s bank, the 1st Bank of the USA. At the time of the Louisiana Purchase, the thirteen Colonies had around seven million dollars in revenues, a 3.2-million-dollar deficit, and didn’t yet collect taxes. Naturally, it was Mayer’s bank that provided the funds according to Mayer’s wishes. The deal not only confirmed the First Bank of the United States’ status, but the Louisiana Purchase allowed Congress to open up the west.

To everyone’s surprise, when Congress offered to pay fifteen million dollars for the port of New Orleans, Napoleon sweetened the deal by throwing in at no extra charge all of the French possessions, including Rupert’s Land, a territory that in large part is Canada today. That was, indeed, a mind-boggling offer, and though Congress couldn’t believe its luck, it didn’t bother to question this ‘divine’ intervention. Then a straight line representing the 49th parallel was drawn across the continent by the same ‘divine’ power that had devised the Manifest Destiny concept. When Rupert’s Land north of the 49th parallel was joined to Lower Canada, the territory became in fact what is today Canada. America was on its way to becoming a coast to coast nation with Canada to the north, and Mexico to the south in spite of the fact there was still a strong Mexican presence north of the Rio Grande.

In 1803, Nathan let Bonaparte have the proceeds of the Louisiana Purchase as planned, and the latter crowned himself Emperor Napoleon at Notre-Dame Cathedral, in Paris, on December 2, 1804. The megalomaniac then gladly did what was expected of him, because in restructuring France politically he was ensuring his renown. He divided the country into departments and rammed through the Civil Code on March 21, 1805. It marked the beginning of the end for the Catholic Royalists who opposed it violently because it meant they no longer had legal recourse with regards to their confiscated property. Unperturbed, backed by Fouché’s dreaded state police, the Prefects ruled in the departments, and the mayors answered directly to them. France had become the centralist state that it is today.

The Louisiana Purchase was concluded in 1803, and Bonaparte having crowned himself Emperor Napoleon in 1804, Mayer advised Nathan, who was in charge of the dynasty’s affairs in the City, that it was a good time to get rid of what was left of the French Navy. Nathan then asked Ouvrard to do what was necessary to get Talleyrand to encourage Napoleon to put his plan to invade England into action. Napoleon then proceeded to work on his own clever plan to accomplish this. However, Nathan had his own plan. Like in the Battle of Aboukir in 1799, Nathan would keep abreast of Napoleon’s naval deployments, and when the French fleet would be at its most vulnerable, Nathan would leak the information to the English Admiralty who would be only too pleased to have Admiral Nelson finish the job started at Aboukir.

Since Aboukir, the French Navy had been rehabilitated by Latouche-Tréville, but surprisingly, it was Admiral Villeneuve, the same one who had fled at Aboukir, who was given command of the fleet. Napoleon’s plan was to send Villeneuve to the Caribbean, while making the English Admiralty think it was Latouche-Tréville who was headed for Egypt. Thanks to favorable winds, Napoleon’s deception worked. Villeneuve went to the Caribbean, and Nelson was sent to Egypt. By the time Nelson realized his mistake, Villeneuve had had time to rendezvous with other French units in the Caribbean thirty-two days ahead of Nelson’s arrival. Villeneuve’s Navy was shipshape, superior in fire power, and could have easily defeated Nelson, but instead of engaging the English fleet, Villeneuve took off for Boulogne-Sur-Mer where Napoleon and his Imperial Army were waiting. All the French ships from the now liberated French ports were to rendezvous at that port. Everything was going marvelously well for Napoleon when, for some unknown reason, Villeneuve was intercepted by some strange naval unit at sea. Thereafter, the French admiral made the worst decision possible, one that was as catastrophic as the one taken by de Brueys at Aboukir. Instead of continuing on to Boulogne, he turned back and headed south for the Spanish port of Cadiz. Understandably, Napoleon was furious at Villeneuve and immediately sent orders to have him removed from command. However, before receiving those orders, Villeneuve joined up with the Spanish fleet and went to attack Nelson’s fleet that had been spotted approaching from the west. Why on October 21, 1805, off Trafalgar, Villeneuve decided to attack Nelson in the worst possible weather conditions remains a mystery.

At the head of a disorganized Franco-Spanish fleet, practically in a dead calm, Villeneuve headed north to engage Nelson. When Nelson saw that Villeneuve’s ships were scattered six miles wide, he seized the opportunity and, contrary to tradition, he divided his fleet into two columns, one of which cut the Franco-Spanish fleet in two. That column went in at right angles, firing broadsides to port and starboard while remaining totally immune to enemy fire. The other column went northward and sank any enemy ship that decided to turn about and come to the rescue of the sister ships being attacked. The whole Franco-Spanish fleet was either sunk or captured. The score at Aboukir had been 13 to 0 in favor of Nelson, and now at Trafalgar it was 33 to 0 in his favor, notwithstanding the fact that he died after being shot by a French sailor from one of the damaged ships.

Nathan had to be very happy with the results, for that meant the Atlantic was now under the control of only one navy, the English Navy. The Atlantic community could now flourish. Napoleon abandoned his plan to invade England and was encouraged instead to go seek fame and fortune by attacking the Holy Roman Empire to the east. He was to personally keep all the spoils of victory, so, he was doubly motivated to go on the warpath. He defeated the Austrians in Italy and continued right into Austria where he defeated both Tsar Alexander I and Holy Roman Emperor Francis II at Austerlitz in 1805. It marked the beginning of the end for all the Ancien Regime countries in Europe. A year later, the Holy Roman Empire east of the Rhine was abolished and replaced by the Confederation of the Rhine, with Napoleon as ‘protector’. Nonetheless, the Holy Roman Empire wasn’t completely done in, as we shall see later.

31-THE BATTLE OF THE NILE

In 1798, Nathan Rothschild moved to England to take over from the Goldsmid Brothers in the City. His first mission abroad was to strengthen the chain of command put in place by his father in France. Ouvrard, already Barras’ banker, would ask the latter to have Talleyrand come back from exile, and he in turn would become Bonaparte’s right-hand man. Nathan’s real mission was to destroy an annoying and useless French navy, which was sinking American merchant shipping in the Atlantic. Following the signing of Jay’s Treaty with England in 1793, a treaty that had de facto canceled the Treaty of Alliance of 1778 between the US and France, many Americans and French saw this as an act of betrayal on the part of Congress, and the French Directoire insisted that America return the 500 tons of gold that Louis XVI had sent to America in 1778.

Nathan’s plan was relatively simple. Since his return from the Italian campaign, Bonaparte had become too popular and a nuisance for Barras, so Nathan would kill two birds with one stone. Barras would get Talleyrand to return from his voluntary exile and act as an intermediary between Barras and Bonaparte, in order to convince him to go to Egypt. Now that the Terror was over, Talleyrand, seeing only advantages, accepted to return to France, and once at Bonaparte’s side, encouraged the latter to go to Egypt. When the time was right, Nathan would make sure the Admiralty of the English Navy was made aware of these developments. No doubt, the latter would be only too happy to go and sink the French fleet.

As expected, Bonaparte, seeing this mission as the one that would bring him fame and fortune, took off for Egypt. After having disembarked Bonaparte’s troops along the Egyptian coast, the French fleet dropped anchor while awaiting their return. When Nathan learned that Bonaparte had landed, he informed the Admiralty in London, and the British navy rushed to Egypt to sink the French navy which had humiliated them at Yorktown in 1781. A new war tactic was born, that of financing both sides of a conflict in order to get the desired results.

When Bonaparte went off to Egypt in early 1798, the Directorate had chosen Admiral de Brueys to command the fleet. Bonaparte had no choice but to accept this incompetent, boot-licking coward, but he wasn’t overly concerned, for all he wanted was to get as many men as he could to the other side of the Mediterranean. Bonaparte even sacrificed space and sailors aboard the ships in order to transport more soldiers. Bonaparte was quite eager to go to the Middle East. He must have dreamt of riches and glory in wanting to reclaim Palestine, and to dominate trade with India by constructing the Suez Canal. Pillaging Egypt was no doubt in the back of his mind as well.

Admiral Horatio Nelson was the one chosen by the English Admiralty to command the English Fleet. Nelson was taking the looming battle very personally and very seriously. Like most of his countrymen, he wanted to settle the score for what had happened at Yorktown. The English Naval defeat in 1781 had not gone down well, and Nelson had taken off with fourteen ships filled with hooligans hell-bent on killing frogs.

Meanwhile, after unloading Bonaparte’s army, De Brueys anchored down in the Bay of Aboukir. Although his naval force was inferior to that of Admiral de Brueys, Nelson was itching for a fight. When the English fleet was spotted in early afternoon on August 1st, 1798, by the artillery unit deployed on the heights dominating the entrance to the Bay of Aboukir, the Commandant of the French unit duly gave the alert, but there was no reaction on the part of Admiral de Brueys. His ships were at anchor, chained together from bow to stern, thus forming an impenetrable line of defense… or so he thought. Many of his more intrepid officers, Vice-Admiral Cheyla and others insisted he recall the sailors who were on shore and immediately take the offensive, for the favorable winds would have given them a decisive advantage. But he chose to do nothing as fourteen ships filled with vengeful, bloodthirsty Englishmen came bearing down on him.

Admiral de Brueys reasoned that it was 5:00 pm and too late in the day for the English to attack. He didn’t even see the need to position frigates at the head of his anchored fleet to stop Nelson from sailing behind his position. It was as though he had decided to self-destruct. The great admiral kept repeating that Nelson would not attack on that day. So, the canons were not in position, and the decks were cluttered with everything except cannon balls, powder, and artificers.

Upon seeing the French fleet in such a vulnerable position, Nelson kept on going and attacked the ships on both port and starboard sides simultaneously. The French fleet was blown out of the water, while Nelson’s ships remained unscathed. Admiral Villeneuve, who commanded the flotilla at the head of the line and who could have used the favorable winds to counterattack, decided to escape, thus saving two ships of the line and two frigates.

The Egyptian campaign thus began in defeat. The only good thing that came out of the whole campaign was due to the great number of scientists Bonaparte had brought along with him. They, at least, were responsible for some major scientific discoveries. Politically, Bonaparte left behind an efficient Egyptian governing body. However, with regards to the survey of the proposed Suez Canal, the plan to connect the Mediterranean with the Red Sea was stopped dead in its tracks. Because it was wrongly concluded that the waterway would require locks to operate and would be very expensive and take a long time to construct, it was abandoned. The survey report made clear that the Red Sea was 33ft higher than the Mediterranean, an error of monumental proportion.

Bonaparte had several costly victories in Palestine, but they all went for naught. He had accumulated tons of artifacts, but since he had no ships to bring them back to France, it turned out that it was the English Navy that eventually transported them to London. As for Bonaparte, leaving his army behind in Egypt, he took off for Paris. When he arrived, his propaganda machine had worked wonders, and he was again acclaimed as a hero. Thereafter, Barras quietly retired, and Bonaparte casually assumed power by declaring himself 1st Consul with Talleyrand by his side. It was now time to destroy the Holy Roman Empire east of the Rhine.

 

30-RECRUITING BONAPARTE

In late 1793, when Gutle heard of the Vendean genocide, she took it very hard, for she hadn’t yet gotten over Marie-Antoinette’s execution on Oct. 14th of that same year. If her man was the most powerful banker in the world, and he was, he just had to do something about stopping the atrocities.

Mayer agreed. The time had come to put an end to the terror. When Barras returned from Toulon, he was widely acclaimed as a hero by members of the Convention, and Mayer seized the moment. He wrote to Ouvrard telling him to finance Barras and give him all the means necessary to put an end to the Paris Commune working out of Paris City Hall. Not only was Robespierre running the guillotine at full speed, but he had set up procedures for mass trials where 50 to 60 victims were executed at a time.

Barras became very affluent in a very short period of time and took charge of the Convention. When he sensed that the moderates were ready to get rid of the mad dogs (les sans-culottes) in the Assembly, he moved to have Robespierre and his lieutenants arrested on July 27th, 1794. However, Robespierre was brought to Paris City Hall that was run by his cronies, the sans-culottes. So, fearing retaliation and an attempt on his own life, Barras quickly had himself named commander of the Paris military forces and immediately went to City Hall to fetch Robespierre. Robespierre was wounded in the process, and on July 28th, 1794, he was guillotined. The following day, 80 ‘sans-culottes’ were also guillotined and the Reign of Terror ended just as suddenly as it had begun on September 2nd, 1792.

A year later, when the Royalists threatened to take control of the Convention, Barras knew how he would stop them. He employed a brilliant and idle Bonaparte by reinstating him as brigadier general. On October 5, 1795, Barras ordered the latter to stop the Royalists who were marching on the Convention. Using artillery, Bonaparte massacred 300 Royalists on the steps of St. Roch Church. The young man received all the honors of victory, and Barras praised him highly in the presence of the assembly. His appointment to the rank of general of division was voted by acclamation while his protector, Barras, settled in the Luxembourg Palace.

Barras was a completely debauched individual, and he welcomed bribes from military suppliers and big business in order to pay for his mistresses, and his aristocratic lifestyle. Ouvrard personally gave him a contract to supply the Navy. Barras was quite generous with his friends and he entertained many at the Castle of Grosbois which served both as his summer headquarters and his hunting lodge. Suppliers, solicitors, horses, and adventurers of all kinds, accompanied Barras wherever he went. Barras was the most popular of the five directors and his court presented a singular mixture of the biggest names of old aristocratic France and ‘nouveaux riches’. Being assured financial backing by Mayer through Ouvrard and having the full support of Bonaparte, to whom he had given his mistress, Joséphine Beauharnais, Barras had nothing to worry about.

Ruling from his headquarters at Luxemburg Palace, Barras was called ‘le roi pourri’ (rotten king) by his fellow citizens. Of course, his dictatorship didn’t please the Royalists either, but there wasn’t much they could do about it. They were almost totally excluded from power, and they didn’t dare take to the streets, especially since Bonaparte was in charge of the Paris garrison. After the Toulon massacre, when Barras had asked Bonaparte to take charge of the Paris Garrison and protect the Convention, he had warned Barras, “Once my sword is drawn, it will not be sheathed until order is restored”.

On March 9, 1796, Bonaparte married Josephine de Beauharnais. Two days after his marriage, Barras sent him off to take charge of the Army of Italy. It seemed like quite a promotion, but it was in fact a way to keep him out of the way. Not surprisingly, what Bonaparte found was an army that was weak, hungry, tired, and running out of supplies. Nonetheless, in less than one year, he had recruited one hundred and fifty thousand soldiers, five hundred and forty cannons, not to mention horses, uniforms and weapons for all.

When he went to Italy, he was quite aware that his future rested on the shoulders of his ‘grognards’(grumblers), and he set about turning them into soldiers. In no time, he had them eating out of his hand, and if they called him ‘petit caporal’, it was not because of his rank or his size, it was an affectionate term they used in addressing a great general who spoke their language. He made them feel he was one of them by showing great familiarity without ever jeopardizing his commander status. He was a man of stature who treated them with respect.

Bonaparte authorized his soldiers to take what they needed in an orderly way, and because northern Italy was such a rich region, the conquering army soon started looking like one. As Bonaparte’s fame and fortune grew, so did his soldiers’ self-esteem, for they were the recipients of many promotions and decorations and they basked in glory. In no time at all, the grumblers were draped in well-fitting uniforms, had shining weaponry, and the officers were riding spirited horses. The medals that were handed out in profusion made the spectacular uniforms even more striking. It was only natural for Bonaparte to feel at home in Italy, for he had Italian blood and spoke Italian. He accumulated victory upon victory, worked on his propaganda machine, and enjoyed much success generally.

While in Italy, Bonaparte never stopped chasing the Austrians. Throughout the autumn of 1796, he whittled away at the Austrian army with victories at Castiglione, Bassano and Arcole. In March 1797, just two months after routing the enemy at Rivoli and driving them from northern Italy, he crossed the Alps into Austria itself, and by April 7, 1797, he was within seventy-five miles of Vienna. Stunned by the rapid advance of the French army, the Austrian emperor admitted defeat and ratified the Treaty of Campo Formio.

Bonaparte had found new ways to do battle. For instance, since armies needed first and foremost bread and fodder to survive, he first worked on that aspect. If bread and fodder could not be requisitioned in the occupied countries, the armies had no choice but to live off their own stores, which considerably limited troop movement. So, in order to live entirely off the land and move his army quickly, Bonaparte chose the right growing season to engage in battle, moved quickly through the most fertile areas, and sent his storekeepers ahead to negotiate and buy the necessary supplies from farmers and artisans.

Militarily, he used a much greater number of troops than was the norm, which he equipped with long-range muskets. He also used long-range cannons, that were lightweight, had greater accuracy and that he could move around with lighting speed. More importantly, he invented the division system where the artillery, the cavalry and the infantry became separate units. Finally, by attacking the enemy from the rear and the flank, it meant he could herd the enemy into the area where he wanted the battle to take place which in the process had the effect of breaking down enemy morale. He, on the other hand, had troops with good morale because his soldiers were fighting for the ideas of the Revolution and were very motivated. However, the techniques of rapid movement, of attacking from unusual directions and of pursuing the retreating army used by Bonaparte were deplored by the commanders of the old school who had never seen such barbaric behavior.

Each victory was not only related in detail, often in advance, but embellished as well. In every French village, it was a common occurrence to hear the church bells heralding a news bulletin describing the great exploits of Bonaparte, the crier never failing to stress the General’s great courage and prowess. The fact that these bulletins were more often than not written by the great man himself didn’t seem to bother anybody. The French were a battered people and they couldn’t get enough of these great military feats involving brave Frenchmen. Bonaparte was building a solid reputation that no one in metropolitan France would dare attack, not even the newly-entrenched landed gentry. Understandably, when he returned to France in 1797, he was acclaimed as a hero.

29-TERROR AND BARRAS

In the latter part of 1792, the Illuminati set up a shadow government, the Paris Commune, in Paris City Hall. Sitting as Montagnards in the Legislative Assembly, their representatives voted to abolish the Assembly, and replaced it with the Convention. The September Massacres followed. For a whole week, teams of workers went about butchering a lot of innocent people. They would leave Paris City Hall in the morning wearing leather aprons and carrying hatchets and go and butcher inmates and patients in prisons and hospitals. They would return at night with bloodied axes and sullied aprons to collect their day’s pay. It transfixed the French population and all of Europe with fear. And even worse, as the September Massacres were being carried out, the guillotine started beheading people by the thousands. The Illuminati were not only bringing down the political structures of the Ancien Regime, they were also venting their deep festering hatred for their perennial enemy.

Though the Holy Roman Empire was rather helpless during this cataclysm, when the royal family was guillotined, it put all its might behind the Federalists in order to protect the catholic populations that were resisting in the Vendean region to the west and in major French cities. In retaliation, the revolutionary government gave orders to apply scorched earth tactics to the Vendean region, and a genocide of great magnitude was carried out. And it wasn’t much better in France’s major cities.

In order to save Toulon, the Federalists had taken it with the help of the French navy whose Royalist commanders espoused their cause. However, once in command of the port, faced with a superior advancing Convention army who had just defeated their counterparts in Nimes, Avignon and Marseille to the west, the Federalists decided to surrender their city to the English whose navy had been blockading the port. It was a good tactic, for with thousands of English soldiers occupying the port, the Convention forces were kept at bay.

Mayer was appalled by the Vendean genocide where thousands of Catholic men, women and children were being exterminated, but it was only when he got word of what was happening in Toulon did he become fully aware of the magnitude of the Terror and decided to put a stop to it. Maybe someone like Barras could be useful.

The year before, Paul Barras, an aristocrat, had been elected to the Convention Assembly as a Montagnard representing the Var region. He was an unscrupulous, penniless and debauched individual from a well-to-do and respected family. He was initiated as a Freemason and joined the Jacobin Club like all Illuminati recruits of note. Since he represented the Var and had a military background, he was sent as emissary to the Italian Army Command which had been sent to liberate Toulon. When he got there, the Convention troops were in disarray, and nothing was being done. That’s when a young artillery lieutenant called Bonaparte suggested to the generals that it would be best to shell the port before any attempt to launch a frontal attack. The generals paid no attention to him, but Barras did. Since Barras had the authority, he told the generals to give the young man permission to get his canons. In quick order, Bonaparte proceeded to gather all the artillery he could from Marseille and other surrounding cities as well as the Italian Army Command to which he belonged. From the heights of Toulon, Bonaparte had a great advantage over the English forces, and after relentless shelling, the English were forced to flee taking some Federalists with them. But when told what happened to the Federalists who were left behind, Mayer was aghast. Barras and Freron ordered their troops to take the city and butcher the Federalists at will just like they had done in Marseille. Notably, a wounded Bonaparte, though not having participated in the massacre, was made General, and he owed it all to Barras.

In the meantime, Ouvrard had reported to Mayer that he had started selling off the unwanted secondary assets of the great estates he had purchased. The sale of the detached lands and buildings, as well as the furnishings and livestock, had pacified the local notables and farmers who hadn’t had enough money to bid at the auctions and had felt cheated by the revolution. By encouraging them to pool what metal money they had, Ouvrard had made it possible for them to buy a lot of good property and chattels at an affordable price. Ouvrard told Mayer that he sometimes hesitated selling off the chattels because he didn’t know what prices to set. So far, he was using the original Convention evaluations set in pounds, but he wanted Mayer to confirm what exchange rates to use. Although there was hardly any metal money in circulation, fortunes in silver and gold had been hidden away.

Mayer had obviously thought it all out. The French livre would remain fixed to the English pound. 4 livres worth 1 oz of gold or 16 ozs of silver. With regards to the property values, the Convention evaluations would do just fine. Mayer told Ouvrard the only thing that mattered was receiving gold as payment because of the sixteen to one weight advantage. He didn’t tell him the real reason.

The Huguenot agents were extremely motivated, for they were becoming rich beyond their wildest dreams, commissions on billions of pounds being paid out in silver were mindboggling. But now Mayer wanted to thank them in a special way. He told Ouvrard that when the remaining Émigré real estate was bought up, he and the agents would be free to use their commissions to bid on any property still available. And when the auctions stopped, he was to tell François to stop printing assignats. Mayer would acquaint François with his decision at his end.

With thousands of tons of gold accumulating in the Goldsmid vaults, Mayer would soon need to have one of his sons take charge of family affairs in the City. Nathan, the pugnacious one, would be sent to the City in London when he reached 21, in five years’ time.

28-REAL ESTATE COUP

In 1789, upon hearing that Benjamin was feeling poorly, Mayer decided to go to America with his three teenage sons, Amschel, Salomon and Nathan. The last time he had travelled to the new world was in 1785, following Haym’s death. On this trip, he wanted the boys to get a feeling for this wondrous new country, but above all, he wanted the boys to meet Benjamin Franklin. Unfortunately, Benjamin being old and in poor health, they arrived too late.

But business went on. Mayer met with Moses Hayes in Boston, Ephraim Hart in New York and the Gratz Brothers in Philadelphia. Robert Morris who had done such a superb job as head of the Bank of North America and Superintendent of Finance had passed on the torch to his young protégé, Alexander Hamilton, who was now Secretary of the Treasury. Alexander was a true prodigy and was handling the young nation’s finances brilliantly. When Mayer met with Robert Morris, he told him he was henceforth free to use his own good judgment in the running of the country’s finance. Of course, Robert was expected to consult with Alexander, Moses, Ephraim and the Gratz Brothers, and directly with Mayer in Frankfurt if urgent matters came up.

He then met with Washington in his magnificent renovated Mount Vernon estate and congratulated him on his election victory. He assured him that since trade and commerce was developing at breakneck speed, he and his political supporters would continue receiving unlimited funding in order to carry out their mandates as they saw fit.

Next, he met with Alexander Hamilton and congratulated him on getting George Washington elected. He also told him how impressed he was with the work he and Robert Morris were doing. He then brought up the subject of the Bank of North America charter that was expiring in 1791. Hamilton was way ahead of him on that one, for a first draft of the 1st Bank of the United States of America charter that was to run for another twenty years was already being circulated and was meeting with very little opposition. Mayer was indeed impressed by this young man.

The states were developing by leaps and bounds, Mayer’s people were rich and getting richer, and his bank’s charter was about to be renewed for another twenty years. There was absolutely nothing for Mayer to worry about. He always treated his collaborators as equals, and they were always made to feel free to satisfy any whim without having to ask Mayer. People don’t necessarily like being on a string, but severing a link to such bounty is unthinkable, especially when it’s so easy to forget the string exists. One thing was certain, America and his bank could look forward to twenty years of peace and prosperity.

The only matter that needed immediate attention was getting permanent residences for the President and Congress. Mayer agreed that having the federal capital at the head of the Potomac River was the best choice since the area was more or less in the south, and strategically well-protected. Having an executive building for the President and his staff separate from that of the people’s representatives was deemed important as well. However, although the constitution, drafted by Hamilton, Madison, and Jefferson who had just come back from Paris, had been submitted the year before, some states were still holding back. Regardless, Alexander was certain the US Constitution and the Compromise of 1790 would be accepted and would lead the way in the creation of a strong federal state.

Before setting sail for the trip home, Mayer and his boys decided it would be a good idea to go by way of Paris, in order to see what was happening in France. Mayer wanted to see first hand how his real estate operations were going. When they arrived in Amsterdam, they took a Thurn and Taxis mail coach in order to avoid problems with the French authorities. Mayer had written ahead to David Schiff, Moses Montefiore, Gabriel Julien Ouvrard, and the Goldsmid Bros. convening them to a meeting in Paris.

The meeting took place in Gabriel’s mansion in Paris, and since it wasn’t a good idea to display wealth at that time, they kept the meeting low key which suited everybody. Mayer and the boys listened with the greatest attention as they were briefed on the state of the real estate sales and on the latest developments of the ongoing revolution.

The counterfeit assignats printed by Johannot were being circulated undetected, and Ouvrard’s agents, Huguenots working out of the lodges of the Grand Orient of France, were having no trouble buying the prodigious properties as they were put up on the auction block. Ouvrard and his agents flipped the properties to anxiously waiting French buyers with the help of Cambacérès’ law firm that was paid to do the necessary paper work. The word had gotten around that gold could be used to buy the properties at a reduced price, and the wealthy buyers were queuing up. For instance, if a buyer personally purchased confiscated Church property at auction, he had to use badly depreciated assignats which he had to buy at face value from the government. In other words, by purchasing a property worth 100 million pounds at auction, he needed to buy 100 million pounds’ worth of assignats at face value, whereas if he bought the same property from Ouvrard using gold, he could get it for 50 million pounds.

As the sales were completed, Ouvrard sent the gold to Paris by Thurn and Taxis. The gold was then shipped down the Seine to Le Havre where a waiting Baring ship from the East India Company took it to London where it was deposited in the Goldsmid Bros. vaults in the City. Montefiore in London made sure everything went smoothly at that end. So far, there had been no hitches and the elite group assembled in Paris didn’t foresee any. Mayer’s boys were in admiration of their father who had set up such a marvelous scam where no one was harmed that hadn’t been already.

Mayer and the three boys left Paris in good spirits, except for Nathan who was complaining about not being allowed to go and witness the demolition of the Bastille prison. In order to humor Nathan, Mayer talked about plans for the family as it pertained to London. Soon, he would need to have one of his sons take charge of family affairs in the City. It was a foregone conclusion that Amschel, the eldest son, would be the future head of the family and remain in charge in Frankfurt, and that Salomon was to go to Vienna to supervise the massive banking operations in the loosely united German states. As for London, since Nathan spoke English best, he would be sent to the City when he reached 21. That definitely took Nathan’s mind off the Bastille.

When Mayer got back to Frankfurt, the first thing he did was sit down with his wife Gutle and acquaint her with the latest American and French developments. All was going as planned in America, and there wasn’t much to add to what she already knew. Though Benjamin’s passing had been deeply felt by Mayer, business carried on as usual. The 1st Bank of the USA was about to receive a 20-year charter, and the buildings housing the President and Congress were to be built at the head of the Potomac River. With Morris and Hamilton at the helm, things were going fabulously well.

In France, however, it was another matter. The year before, in 1789, the Illuminati had financed a meeting of provincial representatives who had been either named or elected in order to draw up lists of grievances in view of bringing them to the King’s attention. When they congregated in Versailles, the clergy and nobility refused to sit in the same room with them. Mirabeau, a great orator, then convinced the people’s representatives to hold a meeting of their own. Naturally, when they declared their body to be the official government of France, the King sent in the National Guard to disband them. Mirabeau then seized the moment, stood up to the sergeants, and the assembly refused to disperse.

Planned famines continued to undermine major French cities, and the Illuminati were using the Palais Royal, the Paris residence of the King’s cousin, the Grand Master of the Orient of France, Louis Philippe d’Orléans, as their center of operations. The courtyard was a meeting place for all the hotheads, lowlifes and unsavory characters attracted by the firebrand speeches. In July of that year, a throng assembled in the courtyard, fired up by the speeches, went and stormed the Bastille, the much-hated royal prison. The prison governor was decapitated and his head was paraded through the streets of Paris.

A few weeks later a procession of very odd masculine ladies accompanied by Lafayette’s National Guard went to fetch the royal family in Versailles. Oddly, the royals were brought back to Paris without any intervention on the part of Lafayette and his guard. The royals were put under house arrest, and the newly formed National Constituent Assembly had followed them to Les Tuileries in order to be at the center of power. Because the National Assembly had no source of revenue, its members immediately voted to confiscate and sell church property as planned. They voted to have assignats printed and sold for hard currency, and only those with assignats were to be allowed to buy the confiscated Church property put up at auction throughout France, just like Mayer had foreseen.

When the auctions got going Ouvrard’s agents were already in place and Johannot’s high quality counterfeit bills were ready to be circulated. A number of prestigious properties had already been bought by Mayer’s people. Ouvrard’s agents having unlimited amounts of assignats had no problem outbidding the French who were quite willing to wait and buy the properties for gold at a discounted price. Ouvrard was directed to ship the gold bullion to the Goldsmid Bros. in the City, in London. Francis Baring, the Chairman of the East India Company in Amsterdam, was charged with conveying the bullion to the Goldsmids, and always had a ship at the ready in Le Havre. The Goldmids soon became the most powerful bankers in England.

Gutle was greatly troubled by the counterfeiting operations, but she was happy to hear that the operation of stockpiling gold bullion in the City, as planned by Mayer, was going smoothly. She was especially relieved knowing that nobody would ever know what Mayer had done, and that most people would continue ignoring his existence. Some knew he was rich, but since he lived in a ghetto, they didn’t know what to make of it. It would have been a far reach for anybody to even think that Mayer controlled the monetary system of the United States of America. In time, the American politicians would question the bank’s origins and wonder who the owners were, but Mayer would maintain total anonymity. People ddn’t grasp that what was best for the bankers was also what was best for the people, and they tended to envy and even revile the bankers. However, since there was not much they could do if they didn’t know where to point the finger, that’s the way it would continue to be. As long as everybody was kept guessing concerning the working of the monetary system, and as long as Mayer did what was best for the country, the people would eventually and grudgingly accept the fact that it was the only way democracy could work without ever really understanding what democracy was.

27-MANIFEST DESTINY

Mayer went to meet with Benjamin who had just arrived in Philadelphia. Though Mayer was much younger, they had become the best of friends, and they greeted each other enthusiastically. They had enjoyed the time spent together before Benjamin left for France, and again when they had met in Paris. They couldn’t wait to have a tête-à-tête which they arranged to have the day after the official welcoming ceremonies that were planned for Benjamin.

Benjamin’s german hadn’t improved much, but Mayer had since picked up an English word here and there, and they managed to communicate quite well. Mayer congratulated Benjamin on his masterful use of Morris Notes sent to him in Paris in order to pay for the French arms supplied by Vergennes and sent to Schiff in Rotterdam. Thanks to him, David had channelled vast quantities of surplus French arms to the Colonies. In other words, Mayer wanted to let Franklin know that without him, the victory at Yorktown, the founding of the Bank of North America and the about-to-be-signed Constitution would have been impossible.

Benjamin thanked him for his kind words, but he was more interested in knowing how Robert Morris had used the French gold to capitalize the Bank of North America. So, Mayer started by saying that the French gold was intact and had been used to back up the Morris notes. Morris had become the Bank of North America’s main shareholder, and the bank was on the verge of obtaining a 20-year charter from Congress. Mayer admitted that he now controlled America’s monetary system and that it was making him very rich but was quick to add that past a certain point being rich is of no consequence. The only thing that mattered was accumulating more gold bullion in order to create more credit and strengthen the burgeoning economy. There were, however, two main concerns. Getting more gold out of the ground was limited by current technology, and it was hard to maintain anonymity while controlling the monetary system. When Benjamin learned that Mayer had financed the creation of the recently-opened École des Mines in Paris with gold extraction in mind, he was in full of admiration of the man.

The subject then turned to France. Benjamin had much to say, and Mayer was all ears. Benjamin felt that France was a kettle ready to boil over. Masonic Lodges were mushrooming throughout France since the Congress of Wilhelmsbad, for members no longer had to swear on the Catholic bible in order to become freemasons. The change had opened the door to the Huguenots who were infiltrating France from England, Holland and Germany. Somebody was pushing for change in France, and that initiative seemed to be originating in the City, in London. Benjamin was quite sure the English bankers were out to destroy the Ancien Regime of France. People like Mirabeau and many others were already talking about France having a Constitutional Monarchy like that of England.

It seemed that Versailles was creating a problem. The King was completely isolated and surrounded by his aristocratic cronies in a lush setting while a starving Paris grumbled. Benjamin had personally felt this unrest in Paris in spite of the fact that Versailles was now occupied by Louis XVI and his young wife, a rather congenial couple.

The news was no surprise to Mayer. It was now his turn to give Benjamin some bad news concerning the Treaty of Alliance of 1778 that had unofficially made France America’s major trading partner. Since then, America’s economy had grown tremendously and now needed a stronger trading partner. Because of turmoil in France, Mayer thought that a formal trade agreement with England had to supersede the treaty that Benjamin had ratified in Paris in 1778. He knew that the French and the American citizenry would be very upset with what they would deem treachery, which, in fact, it was. Nonetheless, Mayer wondered if Benjamin could accept to work with him if such a trade agreement were signed. Mayer saw it as an urgent matter as well as a logical thing to do. America was mainly English-speaking and Protestant just like England, and the merchants in both countries were familiar with each other’s ways, for they had been trading with each other for a long time.

Benjamin was truly taken aback by this suggestion and remained quiet for the longest time. His natural inclination was to mistrust any man who dealt in betrayal. But because he knew Mayer was right in that they had no control over what was happening in France, and because he truly admired this man, he dismissed his gut reaction. He knew that Mayer felt the same way he did about France, and that he felt very bad about not honoring the Treaty of Alliance, even though it hadn’t been an official trade agreement. Reluctantly, he agreed with Mayer. Mayer added that he would make it up to France by always giving it top consideration in all future economic and cultural matters and would do everything in his power to give France a Constitutional Monarchy like that of England.

In the meantime, if Congress was to be receptive to the idea, Mayer told Benjamin his help was sorely needed. Although he was thinking of retirement, he urged him to accept the seat he was being offered in the Senate. With him sitting in the Senate, and Alexander Hamilton controlling finances under Morris’ leadership, they could easily steer the ship of state. It was the only way to successfully address the pressing matters facing the 13 Colonies. Getting the constitution signed, a President elected, permanent residences built for both the President and Congress, and a trade agreement signed with England would require all their attention.

So far, Hamilton had written newspaper articles that had led to the ratification of the Declaration of Independence by New York, and he was now in the process of drafting the constitution with Madison. With regards to the ceded lands by England, since the individual Colonies had claims on them, Mayer had asked Robert Morris to forgive their war debts on condition that they sign over their rights to Congress, and it seemed to be working. There wasn’t much doubt that all would accept, and in so doing, they would be accepting the authority of Congress. That in turn would open the door to their accepting a residence for both the President and Congress up the Potomac River, and thus, a federal state.

Because Mayer thought things were going well and in the right direction, he added that it was probably now time to start thinking about the territorial boundaries of this great nation in the making. After the signing of the Paris Treaty in 1763, when the French had repatriated their administration and military leaving America to the English, and the signing of the Paris Treaty of 1783, when the English had left the 13 Colonies to the Americans, it was now time to start thinking of expansion westward.

Mayer was thinking of a way to repay France for coming to America’s aid in 1778. America would buy its vast land possessions that stretched from New Orleans to Hudson Bay and to the west right up to and including the great prairies for a substantial amount of money. His bank would advance the money, and the loan would be added to the federal debt. For France, the windfall would be a compensation for aiding America in 1768, as well as for its loss regarding the upcoming trade agreement with England. Mayer would find a way to arrange a mindboggling deal that both France and Congress would be only too happy to agree to. Then, a huge buffer zone north of the 49th parallel could be created, and the USA would be free to expand westward in an orderly fashion along that parallel. Once the West was opened, the Spanish-Mexican problem to the south would be addressed. Congress would first help Mexico gain its independence from Spain, and down the road, offer to purchase the Mexican lands north of the Rio Grande. The Rio Grande would then become the southern boundary line. The American states west of the Mississippi would be incorporated as warranted by population growth, and the USA would become a coast-to-coast nation, with Canada to the north and Mexico to the south. Unlike Europe, the USA would be a coast-to-coast homogeneous country, with a mainly white, English-speaking, Protestant population. It was the ‘manifest destiny’ of the USA to become the greatest country the world had ever seen.

The Jew and the goy looked at each other in total agreement and embraced. In that instant, they took full measure of the situation, and the long silence that followed, steeped in humility and mutual respect, spoke volumes about what they had and would accomplish.