42-CITY OF LIGHTS

In France, in 1804, after the Civil Code was rammed through, non-elected Prefects answered directly to the central authority in Paris and ran their departments with the help of the dreaded Fouché police. After Napoleon was sent to St. Helens, Nathan, who was head of his dynasty in the City, had taken a wait and see attitude in order to determine whether or not a constitutional monarchy was possible for France. He let Louis XVIII have a go at it, followed by Charles X and Louis-Philippe d’Orléans. Those three monarchs were more interested in doing the Holy Roman Empire’s bidding by perpetrating the White Terror and taking their revenge on the Bonapartists and old revolutionaries in general than in founding a constitutional monarchy. When Nathan died in 1836, France was still being plagued by political unrest, and his son Lionel decided to put the French constitutional monarchy matter to rest. Putting a stop to anarchy in a country to which Mayer’s family was so beholding, was the only decent thing to do. Lionel decided to turn Paris into the City of Lights and give France stability by enshrining the centralist state put in place by Napoleon.

The 500 tons of gold sent as an aid package to America in 1768 had been used by Mayer to open the Bank of North America, and the roughly 5000 tons of French gold generated by the real estate scam in 1789 and stored in the Goldsmid Bros. vaults in the City, had been used by Nathan to take over the Bank of England. Lionel, as head of the family dynasty, now controlled the monetary systems of America, England, France and most of Europe, and he personally wanted to do something special for France. This country had given a lot to his family and the world, and yet had been subjected to untold miseries just because it happened to be the cornerstone of the Holy Roman Empire. Things had to be put right.

Adolphe Thiers was an active French political figure from 1825 to 1875, and no doubt did the City’s bidding during that time. In 1830, after helping to bring down Charles X, who had replaced Louis XVIII, he supported the Orléanist Louis-Philippe and had him elected with Lafayette’s help. When this third attempt at Constitutional Monarchy failed, political unrest continued, and Lionel decided that enough was enough. In 1841, mindboggling amounts of credit were made available to Thiers in order for him to build a wall around Paris.

When the wall was completed in 1844, it was time to get rid of Louis-Philippe d’Orléans, the last king that was to be. In 1848, Lionel had Thiers support Louis-Napoleon, a Bonapartist, who was easily elected President with the help of intellectuals such as Victor Hugo. Thiers then encouraged Louis-Napoléon to declare himself Emperor Napoleon III, which he did in 1852, before starting to demolish much of Paris, for this would not be a very popular move. In 1853, Adolphe Thiers and Baron Haussmann, the Paris Prefect, started levelling whole sections of the city to make wide avenues that would, as far as the federalists were concerned, facilitate the movement of troops within the city. Nonetheless, the demolition of crowded and unhealthy medieval neighborhoods, the building of wide avenues, parks and squares, the annexation of the suburbs surrounding Paris, the construction of new sewers, fountains and aqueducts, and row upon row of the most beautifully designed residential buildings in the world, continued. Since gas used for lighting was now accessible throughout the city, Paris became known as the City of Lights. One could ask, however, why they had surrounded Paris with an impregnable thirty-three-kilometer wall bordered by an elevated 250-meter strip of land defended by sixteen fort cities that were part of that wall?

It obviously meant there was a Machiavellian plan in place. In fact, as beautiful as Paris had become, the fortifications had turned Paris into a fishbowl that was meant to contain the Federalists. When the time came, they were to be rounded up with their families and sent into exile to New Caledonia, thus removing a major political obstructionist force. Although the Federalists were true democrats, like none before or since, and as appealing as pure democracy is in theory, it is not feasible. Human nature simply won’t allow it. The only type of democracy possible is one where the monetary system is run by private interests. The one who prints the money cannot be the one spending it, and that’s what the Federalists were in effect trying to do. The very unique and democratically minded Federalists had to go.

Moreover, if France was to be stabilized, the Royalists had to be given a death blow as well. The period from 1789 to 1840 had proven that the two groups could never achieve constitutional government on their own. The only solution was to enforce the centralist state concept that Napoleon had put in place in 1804, and have the population elect a president every seven year. This would empower the people at the expense of the Federalists and the Royalists who would never recover.

So, when the City of Lights was more or less completed in 1870, it was time to get rid of the Federalists. Louis-Napoleon, listening no doubt to a divine voice coming from the City, made the most absurd decision by declaring war on Prussia over an insignificant diplomatic incident. Even more bizarre, he wasn’t the one who attacked Bismarck, it was Bismarck who attacked Paris. After the preordained siege of Paris, Louis-Napoleon fled to England, and Thiers, now the self-proclaimed head of government, transferred his whole administration to Versailles. Surprisingly, he came up with the colossal sum of money needed to buy back the 100,000 French prisoners from Bismarck. Inexplicably, it was Thiers, not Bismarck, who marched into Paris with the recently purchased French prisoners. His orders were undoubtedly to surround and capture the members of the Commune, Federalists all, before exiling them to New Caledonia, but things didn’t work out as planned. The Federalists put up too strong a resistance, and a panicking Thiers commited the worst atrocities imaginable. Tens of thousands of Federalists, including women and children, were executed, while perhaps twice as many were imprisoned under atrocious conditions and died in the process. Thiers did succeed in exiling thousands of Federalists to New Caledonia, and it did mark the end of that political force, but the Paris Commune remains one of the worst blood baths in history, much to Lionel’s chagrin, to be sure.

On January 3rd, 1875, Henri Wallon tabled an amendment proposing that the President of the Republic be elected by an absolute majority in both the Senate and the House of Representatives for a renewable seven-year period. It became known as the Constitutional Laws of 1875 which officially established France as a centralist state. Thiers, who had been chosen as the 1st President, conveniently resigned, and Patrice MacMahon, a catholic aristocrat who was neither monarchist nor republican, was elected to succeed him. The wall that had cost countless billions to build was torn down, and the Stockholm syndrome kicked in. The French have since put their trust in one man, their President. They elect their President, a “father knows best” figure, who somehow becomes l’État, and they trust l’État more than they do their fellow citizens. The people’s Assembly is composed in great part by duly elected mayors, and since mayors answer directly to prefects nominated by the President, it means that France is a centralist state, or a democratic dictature.

41-INDIA-JAPAN-CHINA

The East India Company established company rule in India in 1757, and it lasted till 1858. In 1857, after a major rebellion in which over 100 000 Indians were killed, Lionel, Mayer’s grandson, decided to dissolve the East India Company and put an end to the Maharajahs’ power by establishing the British Raj or Crown rule which lasted till 1947.

In 1930, Mohandas Ghandi led a revolt that galvanized the country, but it was short-lived. Nevertheless, after many subsequent years of haggling in the halls of power, both in India and London, it was agreed, in 1947, that two republics should be created, that of Pakistan (mainly Muslim) and that of India (mainly Hindu). That agreement later caused more religious tensions and more bloodshed, but nonetheless, there was an Indian general election in 1951. The Indian National Congress won a landslide victory, at which time Jawaharlal Nehru became the first democratically elected Prime Minister of the country. Religious tension remained high, but politically, India and Pakistan were working democracies and would never look back.

China, on the other hand, was a much more complicated matter. It was the biggest, most populated country in the world, had no permanent borders, no army, no national identity, no national pride, no economy to speak of, and was ruled by warlords. So, in 1947, with India on the verge of becoming a democracy and Europe on the verge of signing the Treaty of Rome, it was time to transform China into what was to become the world’s second largest market economy.

It was Lionel who had started the process way back in 1853 when he decided to use Japan, a country that was totally isolated from the west, to do his bidding. That year, American Commodore Matthew Perry sailed into Edo (Tokyo) Bay with four battleships, two of which were powered by steam. The Japanese marveled at this awesome technology that was totally unknown to them. However, their admiration would have been tempered if they had known that this impromptu visit was meant to usher in the end of an era, the Tokugawa shogunate.

In 1854, the Convention of Kanagawa was signed forcing the Japanese to open their ports and trade with the U.S. In 1868, the City financed the Meiji restoration, a political movement that gave Japan a constitutional monarchy, which meant that the City now controlled its monetary system and could allow credit to flow in. The Meiji restoration ushered in modernization and westernization, and as expected, the Japanese played the game of fukoku kyokei, a game that turned their country into a rich and aggressive military power. Japan’s power grew, and the proud Samurais, not satisfied with their colonial status, developed a warring culture that would spread beyond its borders.

However, Japan had no raw materials to speak of and was dependent on the US for oil, rubber, and iron. In other words, because it was vulnerable, it could easily be controlled. Japan was encouraged to expand and become the most important military and economic power in Asia. It grabbed Manchuria, Taiwan, and parts of Northern China in 1894, defeated Russia in 1904, and took possession of Korea in 1910. By 1929, it was an empire, and its expansionism knew no bounds. When Emperor Hirohito defied America by refusing to retreat from China, the US turned a blind eye and didn’t retaliate. Instead, the US slowed down the flow of raw materials for the world to see, but not enough to stop Showa expansionism. Japan had a job to do, and that was to clean up the warlords in China.

WWII was the time chosen to destroy the Japanese empire that had by then finished its work in China. The City then proceeded to the next step, which was securing China’s borders. China had Russia and Mongolia to the north, the Himalayas to the west and the Pacific Ocean to the east, but the South China Sea border had a few leaks. After the war, England returned to Hong Kong, Chiang Kai-shek took charge of Taiwan in 1949, and in 1950, after a longer than expected war, North Korea became a buffer zone between China and Japan. After the Indochina war that led to the creation of a nationalist Vietnamese government in 1975, the Southern Chinese border was sealed. However, for good measure, in the 1970’s, the City allowed both Pakistan and India to develop the nuclear bomb. China was now effectively contained, and the process of unification could continue.

As early as 1934, the City had found the man who would help get the job done. Mao Tse-tung had caught the City’s attention when he was elected Chairman of the Soviet Republic of China, which, at the time, consisted only of a small communist controlled mountainous area in Jangxi province. The City started financing Mao after his famous Long March in 1935 when he evaded the Nationalist troops at the head of some eight thousand men, becoming a Chinese hero in the process. With the City’s help, Mao Tse-tung went on to fight Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalists, and in 1949, the Nationalists were forced to retreat to Taiwan, and Mao became President of the People’s Republic of China. From 1949 to 1958, Mao organized the peasants into collectives. He followed that up with his disastrous Great Leap Forward in 1958, when at least twenty million Chinese peasants starved to death. It was only after the purges of the Cultural Revolution, when the Red Guards went through China with a fine-tooth comb waving the Little Red Book and forcing everybody to follow the party line that the country started responding to one authority, Mao’s Communist Party. It was time to turn it into a market economy.

The City was so confident that China would turn out the way it did, that immediately after WWII, in 1945, it gave China a permanent seat in the UN Security Council along with France, Russia, U.S.A., and the UK. In 1964, it allowed it to join the nuclear club, and in 1980 it opened the first of several Special Economic Zones in Shanghai.

 

40-CIVIL WAR

Once the borders of America became permanent, there was still a lot of work to do. The Southern agricultural economy was out of sync with the rest of the country. The bankers in the City wanted the southern states to become a vibrant market economy like the one in the northern states, but the South was talking secession. Geopolitically, there was no question of letting it secede, not to mention the fact that it had huge oil reserves. Industry needed oil and the banking dynasty in the City wasn’t about to let a few country gentlemen destroy its American masterpiece. The South’s old structures had to be destroyed, but the problem was how to start the civil war. The South was not about to attack the north, for it didn’t have the means and didn’t have to. All it had to do was stay put and secede. So, if something was to be done, it was up to the North. As it so happened, slavery was a hot issue in the north, and the City backed the candidacy of Abraham Lincoln, a staunch advocate for National Union and racial equality. It was rather easy to get the northerners worked up over the issue of slavery, and they declared war the minute the South seceded from the Union. Slavery was the pretext, not the real issue, and that’s why when Abraham Lincoln declared war on the South in 1861, he clearly stated that it was to preserve the Union. That was the truth, and it was precisely what the City bankers wanted.

At first, it seemed that Abraham Lincoln was doing the City’s bidding, and, presuming he was assassinated for political reasons, we could ask ourselves why the City bankers wanted to get rid of him, if such was the case. Some say it was because, in 1862, in wanting to pay for the war, Lincoln had Congress pass the Legal Tender Act, thus giving Congress the right to print interest-free money. However, because the greenback had so little success, it was likely not the real reason. We don’t know whether the City bankers printed counterfeit greenbacks in order to flood the market, or whether they directed its ‘defunct’ 1st Bank of the United States not to accept them, but the end result was that the greenback was not well accepted and quickly depreciated. In 1863, Lincoln had had no choice but to reverse his position and sign the National Bank Act. Even though the greenbacks remained legal tender, the law re-established the status of the dollar, thus voiding the Legal Tender Act. So why, if such was the case, have Lincoln assassinated when the interest-free money problem no longer existed?

A plausible explanation for his assassination would be to say that Lincoln was just too nice a guy. We can be sure that the City had wanted to replace the archaic social structures of the Old South after the war, for that had been the whole purpose of the war. But because Lincoln wanted to let the Southerners rebuild their lives as they saw fit, and since his only requirement was to have the Southerners swear allegiance to the Union, he had to be stopped. The domino theory, where the establishment players do what they’re paid to do, played out. So, those who wanted to do what was best for America, proceeded to do just that. After winning the 1864 election by a landslide, Lincoln was assassinated on April 14th, 1865. The carpetbaggers, most of them lawyers and businessmen loaded with cash, were immediately unleashed, taking the South by storm. They purchased the abandoned lands, opened businesses and banks, constructed railroads, and last but not least, started running the local governments. America was now officially the United States of America.

39-MEXICAN-AMERICAN WAR

Establishing the US-Mexican border was accomplished in two stages. The first stage was helping the Mexicans achieve their independence from Spain in 1821 by having American and English troops give them a helping hand, and that had turned out marvellously well. The Mexican-American War of 1846 was the second stage. That’s when Lionel, head of the banking dynasty in the City, decided to promote the idea among members of the US Congress that it was advantageous for America to have a permanent southern border. Lionel had devised a very simple plan. Congress would send US troops to occupy Mexico City in order to force Mexico to relinquish its claims with regards to Texas and other parts of the American south. He would offer generous compensation to the Mexican Government, but the American troops would remain in Mexico City until the Mexicans signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

When General Winfield Scott entered Mexico and won the Battle of Mexico City, it marked the unofficial end of the Mexican-American War of 1846. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed and it stipulated that Mexico recognized the U.S. annexation of Texas. Mexico was also agreeing to the sale of California, as well as all of its territory north of the Rio Grande. The U.S. was to pay $15 million for the territory to be annexed, and $3.25 million to settle claims of American citizens against Mexico. It gave the United States the Rio Grande as a southern boundary along with the ownership of California and a large area comprising roughly half of New Mexico, most of Arizona, Nevada, and Utah, and parts of Wyoming and Colorado. Mexicans in those annexed areas were expatriated to Mexico unless they declared loyalty to the US government. Over 90% chose to pledge loyalty in exchange for not losing their homes.

The northern border keeping the French Catholics, the English Loyalists, and the many disgruntled natives north of the 49th parallel, was defined by the Oregon Treaty in that same year. Having drawn a straight line along the 49th parallel, and another along the Rio Grande extending to the Pacific Ocean, the Manifest Destiny concept had become a reality. America was now a predominantly white, English-speaking and Protestant country from coast to coast, with Canada to the north and Mexico to the South. The Spanish-speaking population remaining in the US would be overwhelmed, and the recalcitrant natives would continue to be forcefully relocated on Indian reserves.

In America, the first locomotive had been manufactured as early as 1830, but transportation remained limited to steam boats navigating canals and the Mississippi River and to short rail systems east of the Mississippi. The Oregon Trail was a primitive way to go west to the Pacific coast, but that didn’t include California. So, now that the Spanish-Mexicans were no longer a threat, Lionel in the City launched his plan to populate California with ‘white Americans’. He had been waiting for this moment to start a gold rush. He knew there was gold in California, of course, and since the telegraph had been clicking away throughout America and Europe since 1844, it was just a matter of letting everybody know there was a lot of gold waiting to be picked up off the ground. Some 300 000 individuals moved in, easily displacing, when not massacring, the native populations, and overwhelming the Spanish speaking population. California went straight into statehood. As a bonus, close to 4000 tons of gold was produced, bought up, and stockpiled, making both the City bankers and the miners very happy

 

38-WILDCAT BANKING

Mayer created the Bank of North America in 1781, and after sending his son, Nathan to take over the Bank of England in 1798, by 1810, the two banks were operating under one roof. The City would henceforth be the board room of world finance headed by Nathan’s bank in the City, while the Secretary of the Treasury in the District of Colombia would unofficially be its chief executive. This seems to be confirmed by the fact that, in 1810, Nathan’s bank in the City was already fixing the daily price of gold for the whole world, which it continues to do to this day.

Things were going smoothly when suddenly the US President threatened to get rid of private banking. When the 20-year charter for the 1st Bank of the United States was about to run out in 1811, hostility to private banking in the US was at a peak, and the hot-head, Andrew Jackson, convinced James Madison, the President, not to renew the bank’s charter. A year before, in 1810, Nathan had seen the problem developing and had issued an ultimatum: “either the application for the renewal of the charter is granted, or the United States will find itself involved in a most disastrous war.” Madison and Jackson couldn’t believe that one man could have that kind of clout, and they didn’t alter course. After declaring that he would teach the impudent Americans a lesson and bring them back to colonial status if they didn’t renew the bank charter, he proceeded to do just that.

In early 1812, the English Navy started harassing the American merchant marine by impressing 10000 American sailors into her Majesty’s service. It was an intolerable situation, and President James Madison was forced to declare war on the English, a war he could ill afford, especially since the bank created by Nathan’s father, the Bank of North America-cum-1st Bank of the United States, no longer officially existed. Nathan’s plan was to force the United States to fight a war and sink them deeply into debt. Surprisingly, after the US declared war against England on June 18, 1812, it was the English that attacked.

The English moved troops into Canada. Some units went up the St. Lawrence and the great lakes right up to Fort Erie and Detroit while others went up the Richelieu River to Lake Champlain. Meanwhile, the English Navy was blockading all the ports it could along the Atlantic coast. All in all, it was a war of attrition that cost the Americans dearly. When the English burned down the White House on August 24, 1814, it was a determining moment. The Treaty of Ghent was signed on December 24, 1814, and the US Senate ratified it on February 16, 1815. All territory went back to its original owners, and nothing changed. The real results were unofficial and never linked with that treaty. The 20-year charter for the 2nd Bank of the United States was signed on April 10, 1816. There was a welcome result in that anglophone Upper Canada and francophone Lower Canada had found a degree of identity in adversity, an element that would lead to the creation of the country we know today.

When the second charter for the 2nd Bank of the United States came up for renewal in 1836, President Andrew Jackson didn’t hesitate to veto it. If, contrary to 1812, Mayer’s dynasty in the City didn’t insist on getting the charter renewed at this time, it was because of the possibility of making a silk purse out of a sow’s ear. After completing the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the West had naturally opened up. Now, in 1836, thirty years later, the City bankers decided it was time to let America expand at breakneck speed, a period that would become known as the Wildcat Banking Years.

The modus operandi was simple. During the period of 1836 to 1863, they would let ambitious men open banks, claim land, prospect for gold, drill for oil, and do all the dirty work so to speak. The frenetic development that ensued was like a gigantic rodeo where no-nonsense men rode bulls and wild broncos. It was definitely wild, but it was OK because the rodeo was taking place in a secure corral. In other words, the dollar used by the defunct but still operating 2nd Bank of the United States and its affiliates on the east coast was tied to the English pound which was tied to gold, and all the funny money being printed in the emerging American States had no choice but to stay more or less pegged to the dollar. The shinplasters, as the state currencies were called, were meant to fail just like the Continental currency had during the War of Independence. When the time came and everybody cried for more financial stability, the dollar would again be officially re-instated throughout the country.

In 1863, Congress passed the Banking Laws Act, and the dollar became the official currency in all the States. Key industries working in the US dollar financial zone had prospered, and their tentacles reached across the entire nation. The oil industry, the railroads, the steel industry and industrial America generally, were run by men like Westinghouse, Carnegie, Morgan, Rockefeller, while the Lehmans, the Kuhns, the Loebs, etc. continued running the branches of the defunct 2nd Bank of the United States. The Federal Reserve Board would have to wait until 1913.

During the Wildcat banking years, from 1836 onwards, Lionel, Nathan’s son, who had become head of the family dynasty in the City, was satisfied to let the American West open up in a free-wheeling manner, for he had three other worldly matters that required his attention. The most pressing one was getting the Spanish-Mexicans to move South of the Rio Grande in order to establish a permanent Southern US border. The French administration along with its military had left America in 1763, that of England in 1783, and now it was the Spaniards’ turn. Once that was accomplished, the Manifest Destiny concept could then be realized, for Lionel would populate California with Americans, and he already had an idea on how to do it.

The two other matters had to do with China and France. On the one hand, it was imperative to get Japan to invade China and get rid of the Chinese warlords, and on the other, to give France political stability by exiling the federalists, who controlled Paris, to New Caledonia, and then bulldoze Paris, the center of power, and re-establish the central state concept laid down under Napoleon. In the process, transforming Paris into the City of Lights would help to have the population swallow the pill. The building of democracies in the ancient regime countries of Europe with their many languages, traditions and cultures would not happen overnight, and it was best to get started as soon as possible. The Chinese and Indian democracies would be easy enough to establish, but Europe would take a very long time. Although globalization was very much on Nathan’s mind when he created his bank in the City, in 1810, it was Lionel, his son, who would be the catalyst.

37-MASS COMMUNICATION

Our world, the western world, started when the Jews and Huguenots, the enemies of the Holy Roman Empire, created democracy in England in 1689. After getting a foothold in Amsterdam in 1602, they were extremely successful running the East India Company and eventually set up their headquarters in the City, in London. In 1688, the bankers financed the election of the people’s representatives while creating a proper parliament. Democracy as it became known, was a win-win situation for all. Parliamentarians were forever asking the bankers for loans, and in wanting to safeguard this great source of credit, the politicians made sure they collected taxes in order to pay back the loans, or at least the interest. The bankers were thus sure of having their loans repaid for the first time in their history, and they invested in research and development at a frenzied pace. The period of R&D that was to follow would be known as the Industrial Revolution.

At first, there was no infrastructure, and communication was limited to the printed page. The printing press had been invented by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440, but the rotary press did not see the day until 1846. The Industrial Revolution was slow in getting going, but it got in gear when, in 1765, James Watt invented a converter for the world’s first steam cylinder and piston engine that had been invented by Denis Papin, a Huguenot from Hesse, in 1690. As of 1765, the Industrial Revolution had a full head of steam so to speak. Manufacturing goods, weaving cotton, mining with steam power and transporting those merchandises along roads and canals became commonplace. Other major inventions like Eli Whitney’s cotton gin in 1793, Elias Howe’s sewing machine with interchangeable parts in 1846, and Henry Bessemer’s steelmaking process in 1857 contributed to the production of goods, but the concept of globalization envisaged by Nathan in the City in 1810, and by his father before him, depended entirely on the development of communications.

Nicephore Niepce invented photography in 1820, Samuel Morse the telegraph in 1844, Charles Havas, Paul Reuter and Bernhard Wolf founded the news agencies in 1845, and from there, communications increased exponentially. When Bessemer invented the steelmaking process in 1857, railroad tracks were finally cast in a durable material and the construction of railroads mushroomed. Then came Graham Bell with the telephone in 1876, Thomas Edison with the light bulb in 1879, and Nikola Tesla with the a/c induction motor in 1887. However, when George Westinghouse triumphed over Edison with his a/c current distribution system in 1891, that changed the industrial world as well as people’s lives. The global village was born.

As research and development continued to receive astounding amounts of credit, images and voices started travelling through the air over long distances. Reginald Aubrey Fessenden transmitted the human voice without wires in 1900, and Hollywood started producing films that seduced the whole world as early as 1910. After Henry Ford got the combustion engine rolling with his Model-T, and the Wright Bros. got it flying in 1903, films made in America, the dream nation, were seen around the world. Although images started travelling through the air with TV in 1926, it was the talking colour film introduced in 1930 that entrenched the ‘image is the message’ concept of Marshall McLuhan. When the first computer and its mouse arrived in 1976, and especially when Tim Berners-Lee’s World Wide Web came along in 1990, we became information addicts. But it was the smartphone in 1993 that captivated our total attention and hardwired us to the news agencies, transforming us into smombies in the process. It took 3 million years to get to steam energy, but it took a mere 225 years more to get the whole world lit up and connected.

Hollywood was a good example of how research and development money gets things done. In the early 1900s, filmmakers, almost exclusively Jewish, began moving to California. The idea was to create the film industry in an unreachable place where they would be free to use with impunity the usurped patents owned by Thomas Edison and Eastman Kodak of New Jersey. If an agent from New Jersey came out west to sue them, all the filmmakers had to do was make a quick escape to Mexico. There was really not much Thomas Edison or George Eastman could do in order to protect their patents.

The first film, ‘In old California’, was produced in 1910. From there, the Laemmle’s, the Zukor’s, the Frohman’s, the Lasky’s, the Goldfish’s, the Abrams’, the Warner’s, the DeMille’s, the Cohn’s, the Selznick’s, the Sarnoff’s, the Zanuck’s, the Loew’s and the Mayer’s, Jews for the most part, made the industry prosper with lightning speed. The radio and film industries launched the 20th century into the realm of globalization, and in the blink of an eye, television, computers, mobile phones and airplanes turned us into world citizens.

36-BATTLE OF WATERLOO

When Napoleon returned from Russia, Nathan decided it was time to get rid of him. Nathan financed the armies of Austria, Prussia, Russia and England on the one hand and Napoleon’s Imperial Army on the other. Napoleon suffered defeat upon defeat, and after his encounters with Wellington in Spain, he was forced out of the Iberian Peninsula. Defeated, he signed the Treaty of Fontainebleau on April 11, 1814, abdicating in the process, and was exiled to the Island of Elba.

However, something very odd happened on February 26, 1815. In wanting to completely uproot Napoleon’s personal empire and destroy what was left of the Imperial Army in order to create, or at least try to create, a French constitutional monarchy, Nathan probably arranged to have him escape from Elba. As the British guard ships looked the other way, Napoleon slipped away from Portoferraio on board the French warship Inconstant with some 1,000 men and landed between Cannes and Antibes on March 1. He knew that Royalist Provence was not very friendly to him, and so, he avoided Provence by taking a route through the Alps on his way to Paris.

Surprisingly, without firing a single shot, he marched unimpeded in a country in which he was reviled, and his troop numbers swelled until they became an army. On March 5, the Royalist 5th Infantry Regiment at Grenoble crossed over to Napoleon en masse. The next day they were joined by the 7th Infantry Regiment under its colonel, Charles de la Bédoyère, who would later be executed for treason by the Bourbons. An odd anecdote illustrates Napoleon’s charisma. When Royalist troops were dispatched to stop Napoleon at Grenoble, Napoleon stepped out in front of them, ripped open his coat and said “if any of you wishes to shoot his Emperor, here I am.” Instead of doing their duty, the men acclaimed him as his ‘grognards’ had when he had first gone to Italy.

Marshal Ney, a military commander under Louis XVIII, was heard to say that Napoleon should be brought to Paris in an iron cage, but on March 14, that same Ney rejoined his old comrade in arms with 6,000 men. Five days later, after making his way northward, promising constitutional reform and an elected assembly, Napoleon entered the capital to the acclaim of the crowds.

In the meantime, Nathan arranged to have the Coalition countries, Austria, Prussia, Russia and England, to meet in Vienna where they proceeded to declare Napoleon an outlaw and pledge 150 000 men to defeat him. Unruffled, Napoleon decided to take the offensive by going after the weakest army, that of Wellington, which had marched into Belgium. Because there were still many English troops in Canada as a result of the War of 1812, Wellington didn’t have what could be called an elite army.

The Duke of Wellington with 110,000 men, and Prussia’s Field Marshal Blucher with 120,000 men were the only two armies close enough to threaten France, and so Napoleon decided to strike before the Russians and the Austrians arrived. Moving with stunning speed, he invaded Belgium with 125,000 men in a bid to split Wellington and Blucher’s armies and defeat each separately.

Marshal Grouchy went to meet Wellington’s army while Napoleon defeated the Prussians. Then, with the Prussians on the run, Napoleon decided to personally go after Wellington to the north. Marshal Grouchy was to make sure the defeated Prussians to the east would not come back and join up with Wellington. However, it took more time than expected for Napoleon to drive through Wellington’s defenses, and mysteriously, Marshal Grouchy failed to hold back the routed Prussians. According to legend, at noon, on the 18th of June, Grouchy was having lunch with a local notable and was more interested in finishing his meal and having his strawberry desert than in heeding his officer’s insistent and repeated warnings that the Prussians were returning. When Blucher’s forces joined up with those of Wellington, Napoleon didn’t have a chance. It marked the end of the Battle of Waterloo.

Meanwhile, Nathan had put a formidable communications network in place, and on the day of the battle, he was in London waiting for the official results. Even though Nathan was financing all the armies and probably had arranged to have Marshal Grouchy betray Napoleon, he wanted to be absolutely sure before putting his devilish stock exchange plan in motion. Nathan already held a goodly amount of the 300 million pounds’ worth of Consols, the debt England had consolidated in funded government securities that were traded on the London Stock Exchange, but he wanted to own it all.

As soon as the battle outcome was confirmed by his personal couriers who had waited for the carrier pigeons to arrive, and who had then rushed to the London Stock Exchange to inform the great man, Nathan started dumping all the Consols that he owned, making sure all the traders saw what he was doing. In no time at all, convinced that Nathan knew something they didn’t, the traders started dumping their Consols until the price of Consols dropped to ten percent of their value. When Nathan gave the signal, his aides bought back all the Consols as fast as they could. When the outcome of the battle was made public a short time later, and when everybody realized it had been Wellington, and not Napoleon, who had won, the price of Consols skyrocketed past their original high, and in a single day, Nathan had taken charge of the entire English debt and thus was in total control of the Bank of England and the monetary system of Britain.

Napoleon was exiled to St. Helens, and Louis XVIII was encouraged to establish a French constitutional monarchy. But the Holy Roman empire power machine was still too powerful, and the attempt to establish a constitutional monarchy backfired when the royalists perpetrated the White Terror. Louis XVIII was then removed from power with the help of Adolphe Thiers, and Nathan made another attempt at establishing a constitutional monarchy with Charles X, but it was no better. So, again with Thiers’ help, Charles X was removed. Nathan tried again to establish an English style monarchy in 1830 with Louis-Philippe, the citizen king, but again it was unsuccessful. When Lionel, Nathan’s son, became head of the dynasty in 1836, he decided that enough was enough. Paris, the center of power, would be cleaned up and transformed into the City of Lights, and France would return to being a republic as established under Napoleon. In order to do that, he would once more use the very versatile politician, Adolphe Thiers.

Under Lionel’s direction, the first thing Thiers was asked to do was build a huge wall around Paris which he did starting in 1841. Then, in 1848, Lionel got Thiers to have the bumbling idiot, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, elected President. In 1852, as planned, with Adolphe Thiers by his side, President Napoleon III unilaterally declared himself emperor. With Thiers’ wall finished in 1844, the construction of the City of Lights began in 1848 with the help of Baron Hausmann. In 1870, Napoleon III declared a nonsensical war on Germany, but surprisingly, it was Bismarck who attacked France and laid Paris under siege. Many of the federalists, who were supposed to be rounded up and exiled to New Caledonia, having too valiantly opposed Adolphe Thiers’ troops, were instead shot like fish in a barrel. The remaining federalists were exiled to New Caledonia, the wall came down, and in 1875, the royalists threw in the towel by agreeing to the Constitutional Laws. France was now officially a republic and was to be governed by an elected president with a 7-year mandate. The French nightmare was over, thanks to Lionel who must have been devastated by the massacre perpetrated by Adolphe Thiers. The democratic dictatorship created at that time is still in place today.