39-BOER WARS

 

The story of the City in London is all about gold. Mayer was the founder of international banking because he was the first banker to use gold as it was meant to be used. According to him, gold was not meant to be spent, it was meant to be mined, purchased, and then stockpiled in a secure location for all time. The one who had most of the gold ever mined, could easily control any monetary system at hand. Mayer started the Bank of America in 1781 with around 500 metric tons of French gold. After his real estate scam in France starting in 1789, he managed to funnel another 5000 tons of French gold to the City. In 1810, his son was setting the daily price of gold worldwide from his offices in the City. Nathan had perhaps as much as 7000 metric tons of gold under his control, close to half the gold ever produced at that time. He held most of England’s debt, and was effectively in charge of the English monetary system.

In 1812, Nathan sent Napoleon to Russia in order to force the Tsar to let private interests mine for gold in the Urals, which was a determining moment in our history. Thanks to the French engineers from l’École des Mines de Paris, placer deposit gold mining techniques were refined, and the City focused its attention on gold production.

There was the California gold rush of 1848, and when hard rock mining was made possible in the 1880’s, gold production skyrocketed. Paper money went to the miner, and gold went to the one who printed the paper, the City. As gold was stockpiled by the City, the paper it backed, whether in America or England, became as good as gold. There have never been losers, for the miners get paid the world price set in the City, and Mayer’s dynasty stockpiles the gold and creates more credit.

The total production of gold to date is estimated at around 200000 metric tons. The gold used in jewellery, industry, and dentistry, combined with the token amounts of gold on display in the various Central Banks of Germany, Italy, France, USA, China, Russia etc., probably accounts for around 75000 metric tons. When all is said and done, most gold is held in the form of ETF’s, Exchange-Traded Funds, and though it is impossible to know, there’s at least 100000 metric tons of gold bullion unaccounted for and stockpiled somewhere.

The Boer Wars are forgotten wars, but if one analyzes and correlates the dates and circumstances surrounding the discovery of gold and diamonds in South Africa and the wars that were fought in that country, it becomes clear that they were all about controlling the production of those two precious commodities. In 1879, the British had managed to put an end to the Zulu military might, and in 1880, had declared the South African Republic to be an English possession. But in 1881, the Boers, mainly Dutch white settlers, badly defeated the British troops and forced them to go home. In 1899, this time, with the help of several Commonwealth countries, Britain came back to fight the Boers, and after heavy casualties on all sides, Commonwealth, African and Boer, the British finally prevailed in 1902. The British unilaterally changed the name of South African Republic to Union of South Africa in 1909, while declaring it to be a dominion of the British Empire. Since then, South Africa has produced a disproportionate percentage of the world’s gold, along with most of its diamonds, and continues to do s

38-CITY OF LIGHTS

In France, in 1804, when the Civil Code was rammed through, non-elected Prefects answered directly to the central authority in Paris and ran their departments with the help of the dreaded Fouché police. After Napoleon was sent to St. Helens, Nathan in the City had taken a wait and see attitude in order to determine whether or not a constitutional monarchy was possible for France. Louis XVIII had a go at it, followed by Charles X and Louis-Philippe d’Orléans. Those three monarchies created a lot of turmoil, especially the one headed by Louis-Philippe. When Nathan died in 1836, France was still being plagued by insurrections, and his son Lionel decided to put the French constitutional monarchy matter to rest. Putting a stop to so much unrest in a country Mayer’s family loved, and to which it was so beholding, was the only decent thing to do. Lionel decided to turn Paris into the City of Lights, and give France stability by enshrining the centralist state put in place by Napoleon.

The 500 tons of gold sent as an aid package to America in 1768 had been used by Mayer to open the Bank of North America, and the roughly 5000 tons of French gold generated by the real estate scam in 1789 and stored in the Goldsmid Bros. vaults in the City, had been used by Nathan to take over the Bank of England. Lionel, as head of the family dynasty, controlled the monetary systems of America, England and most of Europe, and he personally wanted to do something for France. This country had given a lot to his family and the world, and yet had been devastated just because it happened to be the cornerstone of the Holy Roman Empire. Things had to be put right.

Adolphe Thiers was an active French political figure from 1825 to 1875, and no doubt worked for the City from the very beginning. After helping to bring down Charles X in 1830, he supported the Orléanist Louis-Philippe and had him elected with Lafayette’s help. The third attempt at Constitutional Monarchy failed miserably, and seeing the insurrections continue, Lionel decided that enough was enough. In 1840, he had Thiers build his infamous wall, and in 1848, he had him support Louis-Napoleon, a Bonapartist, who was easily elected with the help of Victor Hugo.

As of 1840, mindboggling amounts of credit were made available to Thiers to get the wall built around Paris. In 1844, Adolphe Thiers and Baron Haussmann, the Paris Prefect, started levelling whole sections of the city to make wide avenues that would, among other things, facilitate the movement of troops within the city. It included the demolition of crowded and unhealthy medieval neighborhoods, the building of wide avenues, parks and squares, the annexation of the suburbs surrounding Paris, the construction of new sewers, fountains and aqueducts, and row upon row of the most beautifully designed residential buildings in the world. Since gas used for lighting was now accessible throughout the city, Paris became known as the City of Lights. One could ask, however, why they had surrounded Paris with an impregnable thirty-three-kilometer wall bordered by a 250 meter strip of no-man’s land and a huge embankment, and defended by sixteen fort cities that were part of that wall?

It obviously meant there was a bigger Machiavellian plan. In fact, as beautiful as Paris had become, the fortifications had turned Paris into a fishbowl that was meant to contain the Fédérés. When the time came, they would round up the Fédérés and their families and send them into exile to New Caledonia, thereby removing a major political obstructionist force. Although the Fédérés were true democrats, like none before or since, and as appealing as it is in theory, true democracy can’t possibly work. Human nature simply won’t allow it. The only type of democracy possible is one where the monetary system is run by private interests.

If France was to be stabilized, the Royalists, the Fédérés and the Republicans had to be dealt with and put under one administrative roof. The period from 1789 to 1840 had proven that the three groups would never achieve this on their own. The only solution was to enforce the centralist state concept that Napoleon had obligingly put in place in 1804, and have the population elect a new president in rotating fashion for a determined period.

So when the City of Lights was more or less completed in 1870, it was time to get rid of the Fédérés. Louis-Napoleon made the most stupid decision imaginable by declaring war on Prussia over an insignificant diplomatic incident. Even more bizarre, he wasn’t the one who attacked Bismarck, it was Bismarck who attacked him. After the preordained defeat, Louis-Napoleon fled the country, and Thiers, the self-proclaimed head of government, transferred his whole administration to Versailles, and surprisingly came up with the colossal sum of money needed to buy back the 100,000 French prisoners from Bismarck. Surprisingly, it wasn’t Bismarck who marched on Paris, it was Thiers with those same French prisoners. The idea was to surround and imprison the members of the Commune before sending them off into exile, but things didn’t work out as planned. The Fédérés put up too strong a resistance, and Thiers felt the need to commit the worst atrocities. Tens of thousands of Fédérés, including women and children, were executed, while perhaps twice as many were imprisoned under atrocious conditions where many died. Thiers did succeed in exiling thousands of Fédérés to New Caledonia, and although it marked the end of the Fédérés, the Paris Commune remains one of the worst blood baths in history.

On January 3rd, 1875, Henri Wallon tabled an amendment proposing that the President of the Republic be elected by an absolute majority in both the Senate and the House of Representatives for a renewable seven-year period. It became known as the Constitutional Laws of 1875 which officially turned France into a centralist state. Thiers, who had been chosen as the 1st President, conveniently resigned, and Patrice MacMahon, a catholic aristocrat who was neither monarchist nor republican, was elected to succeed him. The wall that had cost countless billions to build was torn down, and the Stockholm syndrome kicked in. The French have since put their trust in one man, their President. They trust l’État more than they do their fellow citizens, and not surprisingly, the people’s Assembly is full of duly-elected mayors and regional presidents, all bona fide civil servants who answer to their Prefect, who in turn answers directly to the President. They elect a president, a “father knows best” figure, and he somehow becomes l’État

37-JAPAN/CHINA 1853, INDIA 1858

The East India Company established company rule in India in 1757, and it lasted till 1858. In 1857, after a major rebellion in which over 100 000 Indians were killed, Lionel, Mayer’s grandson, decided to dissolve the East India Company and put an end to the Maharajahs’ power by establishing the British Raj or Crown rule which lasted till 1947.

In 1930, Mohandas Ghandi led a revolt that galvanized the country, but it was short-lived. Nevertheless, after many subsequent years of haggling in the halls of power, both in India and London, it was agreed, in 1947, that two republics should be created, that of Pakistan (mainly Muslim) and that of India (mainly Hindu). That agreement later caused more religious tensions and more bloodshed, but nonetheless, there was an Indian general election in 1951. The Indian National Congress won a landslide victory, at which time Jawaharlal Nehru became the first democratically elected Prime Minister of the country. Religious tension remained high, but politically, India and Pakistan were working democracies and would never look back.

China, on the other hand, was a much more complicated matter. It was the biggest, most populated country in the world, but it had no permanent borders, no army, no national identity, no national pride, no economy to speak of, and was ruled by warlords. So, in 1947, with India on the verge of becoming a democracy and Europe on the verge of signing the Treaty of Rome, it was time to transform China into the world’s second largest market economy.

It was Lionel who had started the process way back in 1853 when he decided to use Japan, a country that was totally isolated from the west, to do his bidding. That year, American Commodore Matthew Perry sailed into Edo (Tokyo) Bay with four battleships, two of which were powered by steam. The Japanese marveled at this awesome technology that was totally unknown to them. However, their admiration would have been tempered if they had known that this impromptu visit was meant to usher in the end of an era, the Tokugawa shogunate.

In 1854, the Convention of Kanagawa was signed forcing the Japanese to open their ports and trade with the U.S. In 1868, the City financed the Meiji restoration, a political movement that gave Japan a constitutional monarchy, which meant that the City now controlled its monetary system and could allow credit to flow in. The Meiji restoration ushered in modernization and westernization, and as expected, the Japanese played the game of fukoku kyokei, a game that turned their country into a rich and powerful military power. Japan’s power grew, and the proud Samurais, not satisfied with their colonial status, developed a warring culture that would spread beyond its borders.

However, Japan had no raw materials to speak of and was dependent on the US for oil, rubber, and iron. In other words, it was vulnerable, and could easily be controlled. Japan was encouraged to expand and become the most important military and economic power in Asia. It grabbed Manchuria, Taiwan, and parts of Northern China in 1894, defeated Russia in 1904, and took possession of Korea in 1910. By 1929, it was an empire, and its expansionism knew no bounds. When Emperor Hirohito defied America by refusing to retreat from China, the US turned a blind eye and didn’t retaliate. Instead, the US slowed down the flow of raw materials for the world to see, but not enough to stop Showa expansionism. Japan had a job to do, and that was to clean up the warlords in China.

WWII was the time chosen to destroy the Japanese empire that had by then finished its work in China. The City then proceeded to the next step, which was securing China’s borders. China had Russia and Mongolia to the north, the Himalayas to the west and the Pacific Ocean to the east, but the South China Sea border had several vulnerable openings. England had returned and occupied Hong Kong after the war, in 1949 Chiang Kai-shek was in charge of Taiwan, and in 1950, after a longer than expected war, North Korea became a buffer zone between China and Japan. After the Indochina war that led to the creation of a nationalist Vietnamese government in 1975, the southern Chinese border was sealed. However, for good measure, in the 1970’s, the City allowed both Pakistan and India to develop the nuclear bomb. China was now effectively contained, and the process of unification could continue.

As early as 1934, the City had found the man who would help get the job done. Mao Tse-tung had caught the City’s attention when he was elected Chairman of the Soviet Republic of China, which, at the time, consisted only of a small communist controlled mountainous area in Jangxi province. The City started financing Mao after his famous Long March in 1935 when he evaded the Nationalist troops at the head of some eight thousand men, becoming a Chinese hero in the process. With financial help, Mao Tse-tung went on to fight Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalists and in 1949, the Nationalists were forced to retreat to Taiwan, and Mao became President of the People’s Republic of China. From 1949 to 1958, Mao organized the peasants into collectives. He followed that up with his disastrous Great Leap Forward in 1958, when at least twenty million Chinese peasants starved to death. It was only after the purges of the Cultural Revolution, when the Red Guards went through China with a fine-tooth comb waving the Little Red Book and forcing everybody to follow the party line that the country started responding to one authority: Mao’s Communist Party. Now that China was united, it was time to turn it into a market economy.

The City was so confident that China would turn out the way it did, that immediately after WWII, in 1945, it gave China a permanent seat in the UN Security Council along with France, Russia, U.S.A., and the UK. In 1964, it allowed it to join the nuclear club, and in 1980 it opened the first of several Special Economic Zones in Shanghai.

36-CIVIL WAR

Once the borders of America were permanently drawn, there was still a lot of work to be done. The southern agricultural economy was out of sync with the rest of the country, and while the City wanted it to join the vibrant market economy of the northern states, the south was talking secession. Geopolitically, there was no question of letting it secede, not to mention the fact that it had huge oil reserves. Industry needed oil and the City wasn’t about to let a few country gentlemen destroy its masterpiece, America. The south’s old structures had to be destroyed, but the problem was how to start the civil war. The south was not about to attack the north, for it didn’t have the means and didn’t have to. All it had to do was stay put and secede. So, if something was to be done, it was up to the North. As it so happened, slavery was a hot issue in the north, and the City backed the candidacy of Abraham Lincoln, a staunch advocate for National Union and racial equality. It was rather easy to get the northerners worked up over the issue of slavery, and they declared war the minute the south seceded from the Union. Slavery was the pretext but not the real issue, for history has shown that the north is every bit as racist as the south. That’s why when Abraham Lincoln declared war on the south in 1861, he clearly stated that it was to preserve the Union. That was the truth, and it was precisely what the City wanted.

At first, it seemed that Abraham Lincoln was doing the City’s bidding, and, presuming he was assassinated for political reasons, we could ask ourselves why the bankers wanted to get rid of him, if such was the case. Some say it was because, in 1862, in wanting to pay for the war, Lincoln had Congress pass the Legal Tender Act, thus giving Congress the right to print interest-free money. However, because the greenback had so little success, it was likely not the real reason. We don’t know whether the City printed counterfeit greenbacks in order to flood the market, or whether it directed its defunct First Bank of the United States not to accept them, but the end result was that the greenback was not well accepted and quickly depreciated. In 1863, Lincoln had had no choice but to reverse his position and sign the National Bank Act. Even though the greenbacks remained legal tender, the law re-established the status of the dollar, thus voiding the Legal Tender Act. So why, if such was the case, have Lincoln assassinated when the interest-free money problem no longer existed?

A plausible explanation for his assassination would be to say that Lincoln was just too nice a guy. We can be sure that the City had wanted to replace the archaic social structures of the Old south after the war, for that had been the whole purpose of the war. But because Lincoln wanted to let the southerners rebuild their lives as they saw fit, and since his only requirement was to have the southerners swear allegiance to the Union, he had to be stopped. The domino theory, where the establishment players do what they’re paid to do, played out, and someone, who wanted to do what was best for America, proceeded to do just that. After winning the 1864 election by a landslide, Lincoln was assassinated on April 14th, 1865. The carpetbaggers, most of them lawyers and businessmen loaded with cash, were immediately unleashed, taking the south by storm. They purchased the abandoned lands, opened businesses and banks, constructed railroads, and last but not least, started running the local governments. America was now officially the United States of America.

35-MEXICAN-AMERICAN WAR, 1846

Establishing the US-Mexican border was done in two stages. The City first helped the Mexicans achieve their independence from Spain in 1821 by having the US and England give them a hand. The Mexican-American War of 1846 was the second stage. That’s when Lionel, Head of Mayer’s dynasty in the City, decided to get the US Congress to send an expedition of US troops to Mexico. It was a simple plan. Congress would send US troops to occupy Mexico City in order to force Mexico to relinquish its claims with regards to Texas and other parts of the south. The troops would remain there until the Mexicans cried uncle, and signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

The treaty called for the U.S. to pay $15 million to Mexico and to pay off the claims of American citizens against Mexico up to $3.25 million. It gave the United States the Rio Grande as a boundary for Texas, and gave the U.S. ownership of California and a large area comprising roughly half of New Mexico, most of Arizona, Nevada, and Utah, and parts of Wyoming and Colorado. Mexicans in those annexed areas were ordered to be removed from their homeland unless they declared loyalty to the US government. Over 90% chose to pledge loyalty in exchange for not losing their homes.

The border keeping the French Catholics and the English Loyalists north of the 49th parallel was defined by the Oregon Treaty of 1846. After drawing a straight line along the 49th parallel in the north, and another along the Rio Grande extending to the Pacific Ocean in the south, the Manifest Destiny concept became a reality. America was a white, English-speaking and Protestant country from coast to coast, with Canada to the north and Mexico to the south. The US Spanish speaking population chose to become Americans, and the recalcitrant Indians were relocated on reserves.

In America, the first locomotive was built in 1830, but transportation remained limited to steam boats, canals, rudimentary roads and short rail systems east of the Mississippi. The Oregon Trail had become a very primitive way to go west after the Louisiana Purchase, but that didn’t favor California. Now that the Spanish administration and troops were on their way back to Spain, Lionel, head of the City banking dynasty, found the ideal way to populate California with ‘Americans’. He had been waiting for this moment to start a gold rush. He had known there was gold in California, and since the telegraph had been clicking away throughout America and Europe since 1844, it was just a matter of letting everybody know there was a lot of gold waiting to be picked up off the ground in California. Some 300 000 individuals moved in, easily displacing, when not massacring, the native populations, and overwhelming the Catholic Spanish speaking population. California went straight into statehood. As a bonus, close to 4000t of gold was produced, bought up, and stockpiled in the City’s vaults.

34-WAR OF 1812

The media did prove to be the powerful force that it was meant to be, but it wouldn’t have happened as quickly and worked as efficiently if the City had not consistently maintained its control of the American monetary system.

When Mayer’s son, Nathan, opened his bank in the City in 1810 and started setting the price of gold for the whole world, that’s when the seeds of globalization were sown. As of that moment, the American monetary system and that of England were controlled by one man, notwithstanding the fact that there was a lot of opposition to central banking in America.

In 1810, the year before the charter for the 1st Bank of the United States was to run out, hostility to private banking in the US was on the rise. Under the influence of hot-heads like Andrew Jackson, James Madison finally agreed not to renew the bank’s charter in 1811. Back in 1810, Nathan Rothschild had seen the problem coming and had issued an ultimatum: “Either the application for the renewal of the charter is granted, or the United States will find itself involved in a most disastrous war.” Madison and Jackson did not realize that the power of the ‘international moneylenders’ could extend that far, and they didn’t alter course. After declaring that he would teach the impudent Americans a lesson and bring them back to colonial status if they didn’t renew the bank charter, he proceeded to do just that.

Around 1812, the English Navy started harassing the American merchant marine by impressing 10 000 American sailors into her Majesty’s service. It was an intolerable situation, and President James Madison was forced to declare war on the English, a war he could ill afford, especially, since officially, Nathan’s bank, the 1st Bank of the United States, no longer existed. Nathan’s plan was to force the United States to fight a war and sink them deeply into debt. After the US declared war against England on June 18, 1812, the English military forces moved into Canada.

The English kept close to the waterways. They went up the St. Lawrence and the great lakes right up to Fort Erie and Detroit. They went up the Richelieu River to Lake Champlain, and blockaded all the ports they could along the Atlantic coast as well. All in all, it was a small war of attrition that cost the Americans dearly. When the English burned down Washington DC on August 24, 1814, it was a determining moment. The Treaty of Ghent was signed on December 24, 1814, and the US Senate ratified it on February 16, 1815. All territory went back to its original owners, and there wasn’t much mention of anything else of importance. The real results were unofficial and never linked with that treaty. The 20-year charter for the 2nd Bank of the United States was signed on April 10, 1816. And since the President’s residence in Washington DC had been burned down, it would now be known as the White House because of the white paint used to cover the traces of the recent fire. Lastly, the people of Upper and Lower Canada had a new sense of identity.

When the second charter for the 1st Bank of the United States came up for renewal in 1836, President Andrew Jackson vetoed it. If the City, contrary to 1812, didn’t insist on getting the charter renewed at this time, it was because of the possibility of making a silk purse out of a sow’s ear. After completing the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the West had naturally opened up. Now, in 1836, thirty years later, the City bankers decided it was time to let America expand at breakneck speed, a period that would become known as the Wildcat Banking Years.

The modus operandi was simple. During the period of 1836 to 1863, ambitious men of all kinds would open banks, claim land, prospect for gold, drill for oil, and do all the hard work generally. The frenetic development that ensued was like riding a bronco, it was definitely wild, but it was OK because the rodeo was taking place in a controlled corral. In other words, the dollar used by the defunct but still operating 1st Bank of the United States and its affiliates on the east coast was tied to the English pound which was tied to gold, and all the funny money being printed in the emerging American States had to be more or less pegged to the dollar. The shinplasters, as the state currencies were called, were meant to fail just like the Continental currency had during the War of Independence. When the time came and everybody cried for more financial stability, the dollar would again be officially re-instated throughout the country.

In 1863, Congress passed the Banking Laws Act, and the dollar became the official currency in all the States. Key industries working in the US dollar financial zone had prospered, and their tentacles reached across the entire nation. The oil industry, the railroads, the steel industry and industrial America generally, were run by men like Westinghouse, Carnegie, Morgan, Rockefeller, while the Lehmans, the Kuhns, the Loebs, etc. ran the branches of the defunct 2nd Bank of the United States. The Federal Reserve Board would have to wait until 1913.

During the Wildcat banking years, from 1936 onwards, Lionel, Nathan’s son, who had become head of the family dynasty in the City, was satisfied to let the American West open up in a free-wheeling manner. He had three other worldly matters that more attention. The most pressing one was getting the last European power, Spain, to leave America in order to establish a permanent southern US border. The French administration along with its military had left America in 1763, that of England in 1783, and now it was Spain’s turn. Once that was accomplished, the Manifest Destiny concept would be realized. Lionel would then populate California with Americans, and he already had an idea on how to do it.

The other two matters were opening Japan and getting it to help unite China by invading it and getting rid of the Chinese warlords, and the other was to give France political stability by bulldozing its center of power, Paris, and transforming it into the City of Lights. The building of democracies in the ancient lands of Europe with old political regimes would not happen overnight, and it was best to get started as soon as possible. The Chinese and Indian democracies would be easy enough to establish, but Europe would take a very long time to unite. To be sure, globalization was very much on Nathan’s mind when he established the family dynasty in the City, in 1810, and took control of international finance, but it didn’t get going until Lionel took charge in 1836.

33-MASS COMMUNICATION

Part IV                          Globalization

 

How the Glorious Man and his dynasty created the world of credit that gave us prosperity and leisure.

33-Mass Communication

34-War of 1812

35-Spanish-American War, 1846

36-Civil War 1863

37-Japan/China 1853, India 1858

38-City of Lights

39-Boer Wars

40-The FED

41-Conspiracy and Control

42-WW1, Crash

43-WW11, Bretton Woods

44-Geopolitical Sandwich

45-Big Brother

 

Mass Communication

 

Our world, the western world, started when the Jews and Huguenots, the enemies of the Holy Roman Empire, created democracy in England in 1689. After getting a foothold in Amsterdam in 1602, and especially in London in 1688, the bankers were finally able to finance the election of the people’s representatives and give them a forum, parliament. Democracy as it became known, was a win-win situation for all. Parliamentarians were forever asking the bankers for loans, and in wanting to safeguard this great source of credit, the politicians made sure they collected taxes in order to pay back the loans, or at least the interest. The bankers were sure of having their loans repaid for the first time in their history and they invested in research and development at a frenzied pace.

At first, there was no infrastructure, and communication was limited to the printed page. The printing press had been invented by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440, but the rotary press did not see the day until 1846. The Industrial Revolution was slow in getting going, but it got in gear when, in 1765, James Watt invented a converter for the world’s first steam cylinder and piston engine that had been invented by Denis Papin, a Huguenot from Hesse, in 1690. As of 1765, the Industrial Revolution had a full head of steam so to speak. Manufacturing goods and mining with steam power, and transporting those merchandises along roads and canals became commonplace. Other major inventions like Eli Whitney’s cotton gin in 1793, Elias Howe’s sewing machine with interchangeable parts in 1846, and Henry Bessemer’s steelmaking process in 1857 contributed to the production of goods, but the concept of globalization envisaged by Nathan in the City as early as 1810, and by his father before him, depended entirely on communications.

Nicephore Niepce created photography in 1820, Samuel Morse the telegraph in 1844, Charles Havas, Paul Reuter and Bernhard Wolf, news agencies in 1845, and from there, communications increased exponentially. When Bessemer invented his steelmaking process in 1857, railroad tracks were finally cast in a durable material and the construction of railroads mushroomed. Then came Graham Bell with the telephone in 1876, Thomas Edison with the light bulb in 1879, and Nikola Tesla with the a/c induction motor in 1887. However, when George Westinghouse triumphed over Edison with his a/c current distribution system in 1891, that’s when the whole world lit up.

As research and development continued to receive astounding amounts of credit, images and voices started travelling through the air over long distances. Reginald Aubrey Fessenden transmitted the human voice without wires in 1900, and Hollywood started producing films that seduced the whole world as early as 1910. After Henry Ford got the combustion engine rolling with his Model-T, and the Wright Bros. got it flying in 1903, films made in America, the dream nation, were seen around the world. Although images started travelling through the air with TV in 1926, the colour film introduced in 1930 gave us the ‘image is the message’ concept that we know so well today. When the first computer and its mouse arrived in 1976, and especially when Tim Berners-Lee’s World Wide Web came along in 1990, we became information addicts. But it was the smartphone in 1993 that captivated our total attention and hardwired us to the news agencies, transforming us into smombies in the process. It took 3 million years to get to steam energy, but it took a mere 225 years more to get the whole world connected.

Hollywood was a good example of how research and development money gets things done. In the early 1900s, filmmakers, almost exclusively Jewish, began moving to the Los Angeles area. The idea was to create the film industry in an unreachable place where they would be free to make good use of the patents owned by Thomas Edison and Eastman Kodak of New Jersey with impunity. If perchance an agent from New Jersey came out west to find and stop a filmmaker, adequate notice allowed for a quick escape to Mexico. There was really not much Thomas Edison or George Eastman could do.

The first film, ‘In old California’, was produced in 1910. From there, the Laemmle’s, the Zukor’s, the Frohman’s, the Lasky’s, the Goldfish’s, the Abrams’, the Warner’s, the DeMille’s, the Cohn’s, the Selznick’s, the Sarnoff’s, the Zanuck’s, the Loew’s and the Mayer’s, Jews for the most part, made the industry prosper with lightning speed. The radio and film industries launched the 20th century into the realm of globalization, and in the blink of an eye, television, computers, mobile phones and airplanes turned us into world citizens.